• meteorite
    Deserts, such as Saudi Arabia (above) and Antarctica, are excellent places to search for meteorites.
    Natural Hazards
    Most meteorites fall to Earth harmlessly. Sometimes, however, they can cause great damage. The extinction of most life on Earth 65 million years ago is a good example of that. A less catastrophic impact hit a driveway in Peekskill, New York, in 1992. Although no one was harmed, the meteorite slammed through the trunk of a parked Chevrolet Malibu, barely missing the gas tank, before creating a small impact crater beneath the car. The Chevy is nicknamed the "Peekskill Meteorite Car."
    Ablation Blackening
    Thermal ablation, the process that burns off the surface layer of a meteorite and causes it to appear blackened, is the same process that blackens the outside of returning spacecraft, such as tiles on the space shuttle.
    Mars and the Moon
    As of July 2014, there were 133 Martian meteorites and 183 lunar meteorites  found on Earth—not a lot. Scientists are able to tell the rocks came from Mars and the Moon because their composition matches chemical analysis of rocks conducted during NASA’s robotic explorations of Mars and the “moon rocks” recovered during the Apollo lunar missions. 

    Rocky Cookie
    The best place to hunt for meteorites is in Antarctica. Because most of Antarctica is covered in ice and snow, rocky meteorites stand out like chocolate chips in a cookie.

    Meteorite or Meteorwrong?
    How can you tell if that rock you found fell from the sky? First of all, meteorites get burned when they enter Earths atmosphere, so they are usually black and crusty on the outside. Also, meteoriteseven stony meteoritescontain iron, so a magnet will stick to them.

    Meteorites are space rocks that fall to Earth’s surface. 
    Meteorites are the last stage in the existence of these type of space rocks. Before they were meteorites, the rocks were meteors. Before they were meteors, they were meteoroids. Meteoroids are lumps of rock or metal that orbit the sun. Meteoroids become meteors when they crash into Earth’s atmosphere and the gases surrounding them briefly light up as “shooting stars.” While most meteors burn up and disintegrate in the atmosphere, many of these space rocks reach Earth’s surface in the form of meteorites.
    Dust-sized particles called micrometeorites make up 99 percent of the approximately 50 tons of space debris that falls on the Earth’s surface every day. Some meteorites, however, are as large as boulders. 
    The largest meteorite found on Earth is the Hoba meteorite discovered in Namibia in 1920. The Hoba meteorite weighs roughly 54,000 kilograms (119,000 pounds). The Hoba meteorite is so big, and so heavy, it has never been moved from where it was found!
    Most meteorites look very much like rocks found on Earth, except meteorites usually have a dark, burned exterior. This exterior is formed as friction from the atmosphere melts the meteorite as it crashes toward Earth. Known as thermal ablation, this process can also give meteorites a roughened, smooth, or thumbprint surface. Thermal ablation creates these different textures due to different chemicals present in the meteorite.
    Meteorites crash through the atmospheres of all planets and moons in our solar system. Some planets and moons don't have enough atmosphere to break apart meteors, resulting in large meteorites. These larger meteorites create deep, round impact craters that can be found all over our Moon, Mercury, and Mars. In 2005, the first meteorite found on another planet was discovered by Opportunity, one of NASA’s Mars rover spacecraft. In 2014, Opportunity’s sister spacecraft, Curiosity, discovered a meteorite that was 2 meters (7 feet) wide, making it the largest yet discovered on Mars.
    Types of Meteorites
    More than 60,000 meteorites have been found on Earth. Scientists have divided these meteorites into three main types: stony, iron, and stony-iron. Each of these types has many sub-groups.
    Stony Meteorites
    Stony meteorites are made up of minerals that contain silicates—material made of silicon and oxygen. They also contain some metal—nickel and iron. There are two major types of stony meteorites: chondrites and achondrites.
    Chondrites themselves are classified into two major groups: ordinary and carbonaceous. Ordinary chondrites are the most common type of stony meteorite, accounting for 86 percent of all meteorites that have fallen to Earth. They are named for the hardened droplets of lava, called chondrules, embedded in them. Chondrites formed from the dust and small particles that came together to form asteroids in the early solar system, more than 4.5 billion years ago. Because they were formed at the same time as the solar system, chondrites are integral to the study of the solar system’s origin, age, and composition
    Ordinary chondrites can be classified into three main groups. The groups indicate the meteorite’s quantity of iron. The H chondrite group has a high amount of iron. The L chondrite group has a low amount of iron. The LL group has a low amount of iron and a low amount of metal in general.
    Carbonaceous chondrites are much more rare than ordinary chondrites. Astronomers think carbonaceous chondrites formed far away from the sun as the early solar system developed. As their name implies, carbonaceous chondrites contain the element carbon, usually in the form of organic compounds such as amino acids. Carbonaceous chondrites also often contain water or material that was shaped by the presence of water.
    Like ordinary chondrites, carbonaceous chondrites can be more minutely classified based on their mineral composition. All groups of carbonaceous chondrites are marked with a two- or three-letter code starting with C. Carbonaceous chondrites are often named after the first specimen of that type recovered. The CI group, for instance, is named after the Ivuna meteorite, which crashed into Tanzania in 1938. CI meteorites have a high amount of carbon, as well as clays. Carbonaceous chondrites can also be named after the place where the first specimen of the type was found. The CV group is named after a meteorite that crashed near the city of Vigarano, Italy, in 1910. The most famous CV meteorite is probably the Allende meteorite, which fell to Earth near Pueblo de Allende, Chihuahua, Mexico, in 1969. The Allende meteorite has thousands of tiny chondrules made of the mineral olivine. The Allende meteorite also has grains of a special kind of carbon—diamonds. These diamonds are actually older than the solar system, and astronomers think they were produced as blast material from a nearby, ancient supernova.
    Achondrites do not contain the lava droplets (chondrules) present in chondrites. They are very rare, making up about 3 percent of all known meteorites. Achondrites form from the brittle outer layer of an asteroid, which is similar to Earth’s crust.
    There are many classifications of achondrites. The “primitive achondrite” group, for instance, has a very similar mineral composition to chondrites. Lunar meteorites are achondrites that crashed to Earth from the Moon, while Martian achondrites crashed to Earth from our neighbor planet, Mars.
    Very few meteorites, only about 0.2 percent, come from Mars and the Moon. These achondrites are the results of Mars and the Moon’s own meteorite impacts. Large meteorites hit the surface of Mars and the Moon, blasting off bits of rock. These rock bits rarely make their way to our atmosphere as meteors and even more rarely hit the Earth’s surface. 
    Iron Meteorites
    Iron meteorites are mostly made of iron and nickel. They come from the cores of asteroids and account for about 5 percent of meteorites on Earth.
    Iron meteorites are the most massive meteorites ever discovered. Their heavy mineral composition (iron and nickel) often allows them to survive the harsh plummet through Earth’s atmosphere without breaking into smaller pieces. The largest meteorite ever found, Namibia’s Hoba meteorite, is an iron meteorite.
    Stony-Iron Meteorites
    Stony-iron meteorites have nearly equal amounts of silicate minerals (chemicals that contain the elements silicon and oxygen) and metals (iron and nickel). 
    One group of stony-iron meteorites, the pallasites, contains yellow-green olivine crystals encased in shiny metal. Astronomers think many pallasites are relics of an asteroid’s core-mantle boundary. Their chemical composition is similar to many iron meteorites, leading astronomers to think maybe they came from different parts of the same asteroid that broke up when it crashed into Earth’s atmosphere.
    Meteorite Impact Craters
    Meteorites crash through the Earth’s atmosphere with tremendous force. The largest meteorites leave enormous holes in the ground called impact craters. 
    The best-preserved impact crater in the world is the Barringer Meteorite Crater, near Winslow, Arizona. There, more than 50,000 years ago, a meteorite weighing about 270,000 metric tons (300,000 tons) slammed into the Earth with the force of 2.5 million tons of TNT. The impact blasted a hole 1 kilometer (.6 miles) wide and about 230 meters (750 feet) deep. The fragments left of the space rock show that it was an iron meteorite.
    More than a hundred impact craters have been identified on Earth. Perhaps the most famous is the Chicxulub Crater, in Yucatan, Mexico. The Chicxulub Crater can be identified on land, beneath dozens of meters of sediment, although about half of the feature is submerged in the Gulf of Mexico. It is one of the larges impact craters ever discovered on Earth.
    Despite its size, the Chicxulub Craber is famous for another reason. Many scientists think the large meteorite that created the Chicxulub Crater—measuring roughly 10 kilometers (6 miles) wide—triggered the extinction of the dinosaurs and other animal and plant life 65 million years ago. 
  • Term Part of Speech Definition Encyclopedic Entry
    ablation Noun

    removal of material from the surface of an object, including melting, evaporation, or erosion.

    account Noun

    oral or written description of events.

    achondrite Noun

    type of stony meteorite containing no hardened droplets (chondrules).

    amino acid Noun

    nutrient containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen that is critical for all life.

    ancient Adjective

    very old.

    approximately Adjective

    generally or near an exact figure.

    asteroid Noun

    irregularly shaped planetary body, ranging from 6 meters (20 feet) to 933 kilometers (580 miles) in diameter, orbiting the sun between Mars and Jupiter.

    astronomer Noun

    person who studies space and the universe beyond Earth's atmosphere.

    atmosphere Noun

    layers of gases surrounding a planet or other celestial body.

    Encyclopedic Entry: atmosphere
    boulder Noun

    large rock.

    boundary Noun

    line separating geographical areas.

    Encyclopedic Entry: boundary
    brittle Adjective

    fragile or easily broken.

    carbonaceous chondrite Noun type of stony meteorite (chondrite) that contains the element carbon, usually in the form of organic compounds such as amino acids.
    chondrite Noun

    type of stony meteorite containing hardened droplets, called chondrules, of silicate minerals.

    chondrule Noun

    small droplet of silicate mineral found in stony meteorites.

    clay Noun

    type of sedimentary rock that is able to be shaped when wet.

    composition Noun

    arrangement of the parts of a work or structure in relation to each other and to the whole.

    core Noun

    the extremely hot center of Earth, another planet, or a star.

    Encyclopedic Entry: core
    crust Noun

    rocky outermost layer of Earth or other planet.

    Encyclopedic Entry: crust
    crystal Noun

    type of mineral that is clear and, when viewed under a microscope, has a repeating pattern of atoms and molecules.

    debris Noun

    remains of something broken or destroyed; waste, or garbage.

    diamond Noun

    type of crystal that is pure carbon and the hardest known natural substance.

    dinosaur Noun

    very large, extinct reptile chiefly from the Mesozoic Era, 251 million to 65 million years ago.

    discover Verb

    to learn or understand something for the first time.

    disintegrate Verb

    to fall apart and disappear.

    dust Noun

    microscopic particles of rocks or minerals drifting in space. Also called cosmic dust or space dust.

    element Noun

    chemical that cannot be separated into simpler substances.

    embed Verb

    to attach firmly to a surrounding substance.

    enormous Adjective

    very large.

    exterior adjective, noun

    on the outside or outdoors.

    extinction Noun

    process of complete disappearance of a species from Earth.

    fragment Noun

    piece or part.

    friction Noun

    force produced by rubbing one thing against another.

    gas Noun

    state of matter with no fixed shape that will fill any container uniformly. Gas molecules are in constant, random motion.

    harsh Adjective


    impact Noun

    collision or crash.

    impact crater Noun

    circular surface depression made by the impact of a meteorite.

    indicate Verb

    to display or show.

    integral Adjective

    very important.

    iron meteorite Noun

    rock, made of iron and nickel, that has crashed to Earth from outside the atmosphere.

    lava Noun

    molten rock, or magma, that erupts from volcanoes or fissures in the Earth's surface.

    lunar Adjective

    having to do with Earth's moon or the moons of other planets.

    mantle Noun

    middle layer of the Earth, made of mostly solid rock.

    Encyclopedic Entry: mantle
    Mars Noun

    fourth planet from the sun, between Earth and Jupiter.

    massive Adjective

    very large or heavy.

    metal Noun

    category of elements that are usually solid and shiny at room temperature.

    meteor Noun

    rocky debris from space that enters Earth's atmosphere. Also called a shooting star or falling star.

    Encyclopedic Entry: meteor
    meteorite Noun

    type of rock that has crashed into Earth from outside the atmosphere.

    Encyclopedic Entry: meteorite
    meteoroid Noun

    small, rocky body traveling around the sun.

    Encyclopedic Entry: meteoroid
    micrometeorite Noun

    dust-size particle of space debris that burns up as it enters Earth's atmosphere.

    mineral Noun

    inorganic material that has a characteristic chemical composition and specific crystal structure.

    minute Adjective

    very small amount.

    Moon Noun

    Earth's only natural satellite.

    moon Noun

    natural satellite of a planet.

    Encyclopedic Entry: moon
    nickel Noun

    chemical element with the symbol Ni.

    olivine Noun

    type of silicate mineral.

    orbit Verb

    to move in a circular pattern around a more massive object.

    Encyclopedic Entry: orbit
    organic compound Noun

    chemical substance that contains the element carbon.

    pallasite Noun

    type of stony-iron meteorite containing olivine or peridot crystals embedded in an iron-nickel webbing.

    particle Noun

    small piece of material.

    planet Noun

    large, spherical celestial body that regularly rotates around a star.

    Encyclopedic Entry: planet
    plummet Verb

    to fall sharply.

    primitive Adjective

    simple or crude.

    quantity Noun


    relic Noun

    memento or surviving object of the past.

    rock Noun

    natural substance composed of solid mineral matter.

    rover Noun

    vehicle that remotely explores a region, such as the surface of a moon, planet, or other celestial body.

    sediment Noun

    solid material transported and deposited by water, ice, and wind.

    Encyclopedic Entry: sediment
    silicate Noun

    most common group of minerals, all of which include the elements silicon (Si) and oxygen (O).

    solar system Noun

    the sun and the planets, asteroids, comets, and other bodies that orbit around it.

    spacecraft Noun

    vehicle designed for travel outside Earth's atmosphere.

    specimen Noun

    individual organism that is a typical example of its classification.

    stony-iron meteorite Noun

    rock, made of nearly equal parts metal and silicate minerals, that has crashed to Earth from outside the atmosphere.

    stony meteorite Noun

    rock, made of silicate minerals, that has crashed to Earth from outside the atmosphere.

    submerge Verb

    to put underwater.

    sun Noun

    star at the center of our solar system.

    supernova Noun

    sudden, violent explosion of a massive star.

    texture adjective, noun

    physical or tactile characteristics of a substance.

    thermal Adjective

    having to do with heat or temperature.

    TNT Noun

    (trinitrotoluene) chemical compound often used as a predictable, reliable explosive material with relatively safe handling properties.

    tremendous Adjective

    very large or important.

    trigger Verb

    to cause or begin a chain of events.