• Silk Road Threads Through History
    Afghanistan remains a crossroads of cultural, political, and physical geography.

    Photograph by Frank and Helen Schreider, National Geographic

    Big Find
    In 2003, Dr. Fredrik Hiebert was among a group of archaeologists who witnessed the rediscovery of the “Bactrian hoard,” a bounty of 20,000 gold, silver, and ivory objects that had been hidden in Afghanistan’s presidential palace in Kabul 15 years earlier. Read more about the Bactrian hoard here.
    By Stuart Thornton

    Wednesday, June 12, 2013

    The Silk Road was an ancient, storied network of roads, trading posts, and oases that linked Asia and the Mediterranean basin
     
    The modern nation of Afghanistan was a major thoroughfare of the Silk Road. Today, the region continues to be a crossroads for concepts of ancient and modern, East and West, geography and history.
     
    Afghanistan is a land of rugged mountains, but its intimidating topography was actually beneficial to ancient traders, says Dr. Fredrik Hiebert, a National Geographic Society archaeology fellow. 
     
    “Why do you call it a crossroads of trade if there is a giant, massive, mountainous blob right in the middle of Afghanistan?” he asks. “Well, those mountains and those rivers are the best things to facilitate trade. Because what happened is you look at the mountains, and you see these valleys that go up into the mountains. Those are superhighways. You go up from the deserts, and you can go up through the mountains. It’s easy. You don’t really have to know too much about navigation.”
     
    Graveyard of Empires 
     
    Afghanistan sat at a strategic juncture between the empires of Asia, eastern Africa, and southern Europe. Traders and travelers on the Silk Road could interact with the cultures of China, India, Persia, Arabia, eastern Africa, the Maghreb, and the eastern Mediterranean.
     
    “It is almost equidistant between the China Sea and the Mediterranean,” Hiebert says.
     
    Afghanistan’s central location on the Silk Road helped develop the region’s impressive wealth. 
     
    “It was kind of mythical in the past, because it was very wealthy,” Hiebert says. “They not only had a lot of agriculture, they had a lot of animal wealth, because [the region] is really great for herding. And they had mineral wealth.”
     
    The wealth and cosmopolitan culture of Afghanistan’s trading outposts made them popular sites on the Silk Road. Settlements including Tepe Fullol, Ai Khanoum, Bamiyan, and Bagram (current site of the U.S. military’s Bagram Airfield) were bustling stops for traders. 
     
    It wasn’t only trade goods, however, that moved across Afghanistan. Powerful ideas spread through the region. Trade, religion, communication, and political thought all interacted on the Silk Road.
     
    Buddhism, for instance, started in India and spread to Afghanistan before migrating to China, Hiebert says. 
     
    Bamiyan, in central Afghanistan, was a Buddhist center with towering statues that dominated local cliffs before they were destroyed by the Taliban in 2001. 
     
    “Those giant Buddhas were 200 to 300 feet tall,” Hiebert says. “Those were very easy beacons for traders.”
     
    Art, too, developed diverse influences. Greek architectural style, for instance, permeates the ruins of Ai Khanoum, an archaeological site in modern Afghanistan’s northeast. Ai Khanoum was conquered by Alexander the Great, and inscriptions to Greek gods such as Hermes and Heracles have been found on artifacts. 
     
    The same elements that made Afghanistan so attractive to ancient traders also made it a target for conquest.
     
    “Once you have that kind of wealth,” Hiebert says, “the next thing you know is you have all these foreign people coming onto your soil trying to take it over.” 
     
    But from the Greek forces of Alexander the Great to the British Empire of the 19th century, Afghanistan has proved to be nearly impossible to permanently conquer. The region’s climate and landscape have earned it the bitter nickname “Graveyard of Empires.”
     
    “First of all is that it is right smack dab in the center of Asia, and what that means is the climate is continental,” Hiebert says. “Continental climate means that it is not buffered by the ocean’s currents. So it is really cold in the winter, and it’s really hot in the summer. It’s a pretty tough place to be.”
     
    Historically, the region’s climate and landscape have also made it difficult for Afghans to unify. 
     
    “Because the valleys are the main sort of thoroughfares, the country itself is kind of fractured,” Hiebert says. “There’s a lot of inter-valley competition. There is fighting.”
     
    New Silk Road
     
    Despite the civil and foreign wars that have defined modern Afghanistan for more than 30 years, Hiebert says he and other archaeologists take a longer view of history.
     
    “There is chaos and everything like that,” he admits. “[But] it is not at all the perspective of an archaeologist who is looking over the past 5,000 years.”
     
    Afghanistan has the resources to thrive once the country stabilizes, Hiebert says. He points out that one of the largest underground copper deposits in the world was just found in Afghanistan.
     
    Afghanistan has other natural resources that may contribute to a new Silk Road. 
     
    “We like to think that the 21st century is the century where those old networks are going to be re-established,” Hiebert says. “It’s not silk anymore. It’s oil and gas.”
     
    Still, the archaeologist says, it may take Afghanistan years to recover from its long-running war and turmoil. 
     
    “Let me leave you with this thought,” Hiebert says. “Afghanistan is a tough place, but you know what? Europe was tough after World War II. How long did it take after four years of social disruption in Europe? It took a long time to repair and recover. How long do you think it will take Afghanistan, that has had over 30 years of civil war? It is not going to happen overnight.”
  • Term Part of Speech Definition Encyclopedic Entry
    agriculture Noun

    the art and science of cultivating the land for growing crops (farming) or raising livestock (ranching).

    Encyclopedic Entry: agriculture
    Alexander the Great Noun

    (356-323 BCE) Greek ruler, explorer, and conqueror.

    archaeology Noun

    study of human history, based on material remains.

    Encyclopedic Entry: archaeology
    artifact Noun

    material remains of a culture, such as tools, clothing, or food.

    beacon Noun

    guiding landmark or signal, especially one in an elevated position.

    Buddhism Noun

    religion based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha).

    buffer Noun

    a cushion or shield.

    chaos Noun

    complete confusion and disorder.

    cliff Noun

    steep wall of rock, earth, or ice.

    Encyclopedic Entry: cliff
    climate Noun

    all weather conditions for a given location over a period of time.

    Encyclopedic Entry: climate
    conquer Verb

    to overcome an enemy or obstacle.

    cosmopolitan Adjective

    familiar or comfortable all over the world, or to people from all over the world.

    culture Noun

    learned behavior of people, including their languages, belief systems, social structures, institutions, and material goods.

    current Noun

    steady, predictable flow of fluid within a larger body of that fluid.

    Encyclopedic Entry: current
    desert Noun

    area of land that receives no more than 25 centimeters (10 inches) of precipitation a year.

    Encyclopedic Entry: desert
    dominate Verb

    to overpower or control.

    empire Noun

    group of nations, territories or other groups of people controlled by a single, more powerful authority.

    equidistant Adjective

    equally distant between two points.

    facilitate Verb

    to help or make easier.

    fracture Verb

    to break.

    geography Noun

    study of places and the relationships between people and their environments.

    Encyclopedic Entry: geography
    herding Noun

    practice of caring for roaming groups of livestock over a large area.

    Encyclopedic Entry: herding
    inscription Noun

    record that has been cut, impressed, painted, or written on a hard surface.

    intimidating Adjective

    frightening, overwhelming, or discouraging.

    juncture Noun

    critical point in time or space.

    landscape Noun

    the geographic features of a region.

    Encyclopedic Entry: landscape
    Maghreb Noun

    region in North Africa made of five countries: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Mauritania.

    Mediterranean basin Noun

    land that surrounds the Mediterranean Sea.

    military Noun

    armed forces.

    mineral Noun

    inorganic material that has a characteristic chemical composition and specific crystal structure.

    National Geographic Fellow Noun

    experts who provide the National Geographic Society with consultation on projects, education and outreach, and environmental and public policy.

    natural resource Noun

    a material that humans take from the natural environment to survive, to satisfy their needs, or to trade with others.

    navigation Noun

    art and science of determining an object's position, course, and distance traveled.

    Encyclopedic Entry: navigation
    network Noun

    series of links along which movement or communication can take place.

    oasis Noun

    area made fertile by a source of fresh water in an otherwise arid region.

    Encyclopedic Entry: oasis
    oil Noun

    fossil fuel formed from the remains of marine plants and animals. Also known as petroleum or crude oil.

    permeate Verb

    to penetrate or pass through every part of something.

    perspective Noun

    representation of volume or depth on a flat surface.

    ruin Noun

    remains of a destroyed building or set of buildings.

    silk Noun

    soft, strong fiber spun by some moth larvae, spiders, and other animals.

    Silk Road Noun

    ancient trade route through Central Asia linking China and the Mediterranean Sea.

    stabilize Verb

    to anchor or make strong and reliable.

    strategic Adjective

    important part of a place or plan.

    Taliban Noun

    radical Islamic movement that led Afghanistan from 1996-2001.

    thoroughfare Noun

    major road or highway.

    thrive Verb

    to develop and be successful.

    topography Noun

    study of the shape of the surface features of an area.

    trading post Noun

    place established in a remote or unsettled region, where goods may be bought and sold.

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