Article

Kakani Katija is a bioengineer.

Photograph by Heather Hoxsey

By National Geographic Education Staff

Monday, August 29, 2011

Kakani is a 2011 National Geographic Emerging Explorer. She studies the impact of the movement of marine animals on the world’s oceans and ocean currents.

Kakani explains the focus of a bioengineer: “We learn from what nature is doing and think of how we can apply that to technology in the future.”

EARLY WORK

The Boeing Company, one of the largest aerospace and defense contractors in the world, was one of the largest employers in Everett, Washington, where Kakani grew up. Software giant Microsoft also has a nearby campus. She cannot remember not being surrounded by engineers and different types of engineering.

Kakani is interested in fluid dynamics, or the way fluids move. Fluids can be air, water, and materials called plasmas, such as lightning. Kakani originally studied fluid dynamics in aerospace engineering. She earned her undergraduate degree in aeronautics from the University of Washington and a master’s degree in the same subject at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in Pasadena, California.

At Caltech, Kakani became more interested in fluid dynamics as they applied to bioengineering. Bioengineering is dominated by biomedical research. In fact, in college, Kakani worked to design an apparatus to improve artificial heart valves.

One day, one of Kakani’s professors asked her to take part in a scuba expedition to study fluid dynamics and jellyfish. She had no experience in biology or diving, but she was enthusiastic, and the opportunity opened a new career path.

She earned her PhD in bioengineering from Caltech, and now works at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

MOST EXCITING PART OF YOUR WORK

Field work!”

Kakani enjoys both parts of field work—collecting data in the ocean and studying that data in the lab. Although she works with biologists and studies marine animals regularly, Kakani remains most enthusiastic about engineering. For instance, looking at footage of a swimming jelly, Kakani observes the patterns created in the water as the jelly propels itself forward—“Look at those sexy vortex rings!”

MOST DEMANDING PART OF YOUR WORK

“Lack of sleep. Your targets are nocturnal animals that are usually the most active around midnight. You have to keep an open mind, because you constantly have to observe and measure their behavior.”

HOW DO YOU DEFINE GEOGRAPHY?

“What a place has to offer—people, scientists, their work, as well as the physical sites.”

Kakani says she always tries to work with the scientists and local residents of a region she’s studying. “It teaches you new ways to approach a problem, which is what an engineer does.”

GEO-CONNECTION

Kakani helped invent a new geographic tool that helps engineers and biologists study the movement of fluids in the ocean. It’s a small device that a single scuba diver can carry. Before this tool was available, researchers studying the flow of hydrothermal vents or ocean currents had to re-create conditions in the lab or descend in a submersible. The lasers and high-speed cameras were big and bulky.

Researchers can now take their tools with them and study the environment in its natural state. Kakani has used the tool to study the environment in oceans and lakes in Friday Harbor, Washington; Long Beach, California; Palau; Croatia; Panama; and the open waters of the Pacific.

The organism that Kakani has followed to all these places is the jellyfish. “They’re everywhere!” she says.

Kakani and the biologists she works with often find schools of jellies not with sophisticated GIS technology, but by simple word-of-mouth. Fishermen and swimmers try to avoid jellies, and know where not to fish or swim.

Even in the water, jellies can be hard to detect. When asked about the possibility of being stung, Kakani laughs, “Oftentimes, that’s how you find them!” (She notes that the wetsuits her team wears usually prevent a serious sting, and most tentacles rub off with seawater or vinegar.)

Jellies make excellent subjects for fluid mechanics, Kakani says. They’re symmetrical, with easily identifiable organs. As they move, they create clear vortex rings—doughnut-shaped rings of water that quickly dissipate into the larger ocean. The vortex rings and the fluid the jellies transport with them as they move create a “rotational flow that mixes fluid in the ocean,” Kakani explains.

Marine biologists, as well as oceanographers and engineers, are interested in the way jellies and other marine organisms move. Some scientists hypothesize that the movement of these organisms could have the same effect on the ocean as winds and tides.

Even though she is not a marine biologist, Kakani says she wishes she knew more about these “crazy-looking, alien things.”

SO, YOU WANT TO BE A . . . BIOENGINEER

Kakani stresses the importance of math, and is frustrated by the way math and science are sometimes taught. “Sometimes we present it like it’s so hard. It is not daunting. We’re handicapping kids before they’ve even started.”

GET INVOLVED

Engineering has taken Kakani from aeronautics—the study of spacecraft—to medical technology to bioengineering at the bottom of the ocean. Not surprisingly, she encourages young scientists to keep an open mind. “Get involved in a local aquarium, zoo, or university-outreach program. See what else is going on in science outside your comfort zone.”

Kakani also encourages families to travel, both inside and outside their local area. As a girl, “I was lucky enough to travel to see family in Malaysia, Australia, New Zealand. . . . I know most kids don’t have those opportunities, but you have the opportunity to go to a park or a science center nearby.”

Vocabulary

Term Part of Speech Definition Encyclopedic Entry

aerospace

Noun

business concerned with the manufacturing and operation of vehicles that fly in and above Earth's atmosphere.

apparatus

Noun

device or piece of machinery involving many different parts or instruments.

aquarium

Noun

a container or tank where aquatic plants and animals are kept, or an institution that keeps such containers.

avoid

Verb

to stay away from something.

behavior

Noun

anything an organism does involving action or response to stimulation.

bioengineer

Noun

person who applies engineering principles to the study of biology.

biology

Noun

study of living things.

biomedical

Adjective

having to do with the study of the application of natural and physical sciences to medicine and medical treatment.

Boeing

Noun

multinational corporation focused on defense contracts and aerospace engineering, headquartered in Chicago, Illinois.

campus

Noun

grounds and buildings of a school, hospital, or business park.

current

Noun

steady, predictable flow of fluid within a larger body of that fluid.

Encyclopedic Entry: current

data

Plural Noun

(singular: datum) information collected during a scientific study.

daunting

Adjective

intimidating, frightening, or discouraging.

defense contractor

Noun

business that produces equipment and technology for the military.

detect

Verb

to notice.

device

Noun

tool or piece of machinery.

dissipate

Verb

to scatter and disappear.

Emerging Explorer

Noun

an adventurer, scientist, innovator, or storyteller recognized by National Geographic for their visionary work while still early in their careers.

employer

Noun

person or organization that hires people for wages and salaries.

encourage

Verb

to inspire or support a person or idea.

engineer

Noun

person who plans the building of things, such as structures (construction engineer) or substances (chemical engineer).

engineering

Noun

the art and science of building, maintaining, moving, and demolishing structures.

enthusiastic

Adjective

excited.

expedition

Noun

journey with a specific purpose, such as exploration.

field work

Noun

scientific studies done outside of a lab, classroom, or office.

Encyclopedic Entry: field work

fluid

Noun

material that is able to flow and change shape.

fluid dynamics

Noun

study of fluids in motion.

geographic information system (GIS)

Noun

any system for capturing, storing, checking, and displaying data related to positions on the Earth's surface.

Encyclopedic Entry: GIS (geographic information system)

handicap

Verb

to place at a disadvantage.

heart valve

Noun

opening in the heart that allows the flow of blood in one direction.

hydrothermal

Adjective

related to hot water, especially water heated by the Earth's internal temperature.

hypothesize

Verb

to form a statement or suggestion that explains certain questions about certain facts.

jellyfish

Noun

type of marine animal, not a fish, with a soft body and stinging tentacles.

lake

Noun

body of water surrounded by land.

laser

Noun

(acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) an instrument that emits a thin beam of light that does not fade over long distances.

lightning

Noun

sudden electrical discharge from clouds.

Encyclopedic Entry: lightning

marine

Adjective

having to do with the ocean.

Microsoft

Noun

multinational corporation focused on the manufacture, distribution, and sales of computer software, headquartered in Redmond, Washington.

nocturnal

Adjective

active at night.

ocean

Noun

large body of salt water that covers most of the Earth.

Encyclopedic Entry: ocean

oceanographer

Noun

person who studies the ocean.

PhD

Noun

(doctor of philosophy) highest degree offered by most graduate schools.

plasma

Noun

state of matter with no fixed shape and molecules separated into ions and electrons.

prior

Adjective

before or ahead of.

propel

Verb

to push forward.

region

Noun

any area on the Earth with one or more common characteristics. Regions are the basic units of geography.

Encyclopedic Entry: region

rotate

Verb

to turn around a center point or axis.

scuba

noun, adjective

(self-contained underwater breathing apparatus) portable device for breathing underwater.

sophisticated

Adjective

knowledgeable or complex.

spacecraft

Noun

vehicle designed for travel outside Earth's atmosphere.

submersible

Noun

small submarine used for research and exploration.

symmetrical

Adjective

having the same arrangment of parts on either side.

technology

Noun

the science of using tools and complex machines to make human life easier or more profitable.

tide

Noun

rise and fall of the ocean's waters, caused by the gravitational pull of the moon and sun.

Encyclopedic Entry: tide

travel

Noun

movement from one place to another.

undergraduate

noun, adjective

having to do with the first (bachelor's) degree earned in college or university.

vent

Noun

crack in the Earth's crust that spews hot gases and mineral-rich water.

vinegar

Noun

sour liquid used for flavoring or as a preservative. Also called acetic acid.

vortex ring

Noun

doughnut-shaped ring of fluid that moves within the same or a different fluid, such as smoke rings. Also called a toroidal vortex

wind

Noun

movement of air (from a high pressure zone to a low pressure zone) caused by the uneven heating of the Earth by the sun.

zoo

Noun

place where animals are kept for exhibition.

Encyclopedic Entry: zoo

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Producer

Caryl-Sue, National Geographic Society

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