• Real-World Geography: Dr. Dino J. Martins
    Dino Martins is an entomologist.

    Photograph courtesy Dino J. Martins

    By National Geographic Education Staff

    Wednesday, May 16, 2012

    Dino is an entomologist and National Geographic Emerging Explorer. He studies pollinators and how they interact with the environment. Pollinators are animals, objects, or forces such as wind that transfer pollen from one plant to another, allowing seeds to develop.

    Most of Dino’s work focuses on bees and other insects that are responsible for pollinating plants from almonds to zucchini.

    “Insects are the invisible, behind-the-scenes workers that keep the planet going,” Dino says.

    EARLY WORK

    Dino grew up in Eldoret, Kenya. Today, Eldoret is one of the fastest-growing cities in Kenya, but Dino says it was a “farming town” when he was growing up. The rural area surrounding Eldoret meant “there were always plenty of bugs,” Dino says.

    In fact, “my earliest memories are of insects,” Dino says. His interest may have been sparked by watching the “eruption of color” near local streams as hundreds of brightly colored butterflies ascended after taking a drink.

    Dino’s family didn’t have a television, and watching insects became his after-school entertainment. He says praying mantises, ants, and butterflies were among the first insects he informally studied. “I tried to catch any insect I could.”

    Some of the insects Dino wanted to bring home for study were dangerous, like scorpions, or found on roadkill—animals killed by vehicles on busy roadways. Still, his parents were both naturalists and encouraged his interest in bugs and the outdoors.

    In high school, Dino volunteered with the National Museums of Kenya. The organization supports natural science and ecotourism as well as art and culture. Dino volunteered with the entomology department, of course.

    After high school, Dino went to the United States and graduated with degrees in anthropology and biology from Indiana University in Bloomington.

    “I had total culture shock,” Dino says. “Imagine going from rural Kenya to rural Indiana!”

    Dino returned to Kenya and briefly abandoned his work with bugs to pursue what he thought of as “more serious work” in anthropology.

    Ultimately, he decided to return to his passion and earned his PhD from Harvard University. “In entomology, all the way!”

    MOST EXCITING PART OF YOUR WORK

    “Spending the day outside, running around chasing after bugs.”

    MOST DEMANDING PART OF YOUR WORK

    “A lot of time in the lab.”

    HOW DO YOU DEFINE GEOGRAPHY?

    “How do I define geography? How do bugs define geography?” Dino laughs. “Geography is complexity; it’s everything in the world that allows bugs to be interesting. . . . The spaces and temperatures, climate and landscape. . . . Geography is everything that makes a good place for a bug to live.”

    GEO-CONNECTION

    Dino uses geography before, during, and after his work in the field. Before even going out, he consults maps of the area he’s interested in. He keeps an eye out for any unusual features, such as volcanic hills. These geographic features may create “sky islands,” small habitats with distinct vegetation.

    “Geography determines vegetation,” Dino says, “and vegetation determines the pollinators we’re looking for.”

    For instance, most desert plants are low-growing, with small flowers close to the ground. Hills and rocky crags, on the other hand, provide more spaces for plants to grow, leading to larger stems and flowers.

    In the field, Dino uses geographic tools such as GPS and GIS “all the time.”

    “One of the ways we work is that we’ll catch [an insect] and place it in a cool box. We’ll place a harmless colored dot on it, with a number so we can identify the individual. We record the GPS where we tagged it, and then we let it go. As we’re studying the area, we may come across the same insect again, and we record that location.

    “Back in the lab, we can generate maps,” Dino continues. Map layers include information about the land cover, such as plant species present, and the number, diversity, and species range of pollinators. “The maps help tell us how bees and flowers need each other.”

    Dino won’t run out of work anytime soon: “About two-thirds of all flowering plants are pollinated by bees. There are more than 300,000 flowering plants in the world! What’s most important is that we have no idea what [bees or other pollinators] pollinate most of them.”

    Dino and other entomologists use geography to help identify new species of insects. It doesn’t always take them where they expect.

    “Most insect biodiversity is in tropical rain forests,” Dino says. “Most insects like hot and moist. However, bees like hot and dry. They like dry areas because they store their food, which makes it susceptible to mold in really humid climates. That’s why you get really incredible bee diversity in desert areas like the American Southwest, the Negev Desert, East Africa . . .”

    When Dino thinks he may have spotted a new species, he often takes out his magnifying glass and looks it in the eye.

    “It either has a bee face or a wasp face. Bee faces are kinder. Their faces are rounder, and their antennae sit higher on their heads.”

    SO, YOU WANT TO BE AN ... ENTOMOLOGIST

    “Anyone can be an entomologist! The most important things are passion and patience. It’s a lot of fun, but also a lot of hard work.”

    Dino offers an example of the patience required in field work. “Recently, a student and I were looking to document a new bee species. We were sitting close to the ground, in the open desert, 46 degrees Celsius (114 degrees Fahrenheit) . . . We waited for eight hours.”

    GET INVOLVED

    Although Dino encourages families to visit museums and butterfly gardens, he stresses the importance of just looking around.

    “No one is ever far from an insect. There’s no excuse to be bored. Insects are all around you.”

  • Term Part of Speech Definition Encyclopedic Entry
    antenna Noun

    structure through which electromagnetic signals are received.

    anthropology Noun

    science of the origin, development, and culture of human beings.

    Encyclopedic Entry: anthropology
    ascend Verb

    to go up.

    climate Noun

    all weather conditions for a given location over a period of time.

    Encyclopedic Entry: climate
    crag Noun

    steep, rugged rock.

    culture shock Noun

    state of confusion and worry when faced with an unfamiliar set of behavior, including language, belief systems, social structures, institutions, and material goods.

    desert Noun

    area of land that receives no more than 25 centimeters (10 inches) of precipitation a year.

    Encyclopedic Entry: desert
    ecotourism Noun

    act and industry of traveling for pleasure with concern for minimal environmental impact.

    Emerging Explorer Noun

    an adventurer, scientist, innovator, or storyteller recognized by National Geographic for their visionary work while still early in their careers.

    entomologist Noun

    person who studies insects and their interaction with the environment.

    environment Noun

    conditions that surround and influence an organism or community.

    farming Noun

    the art, science, and business of cultivating the land for growing crops.

    field work Noun

    scientific studies done outside of a lab, classroom, or office.

    Encyclopedic Entry: field work
    food Noun

    material, usually of plant or animal origin, that living organisms use to obtain nutrients.

    Encyclopedic Entry: food
    geographic information system (GIS) Noun

    any system for capturing, storing, checking, and displaying data related to positions on the Earth's surface.

    Encyclopedic Entry: GIS (geographic information system)
    geography Noun

    study of places and the relationships between people and their environments.

    Encyclopedic Entry: geography
    Global Positioning System (GPS) Noun

    system of satellites and receiving devices used to determine the location of something on Earth.

    habitat Noun

    environment where an organism lives throughout the year or for shorter periods of time.

    Encyclopedic Entry: habitat
    hill Noun

    land that rises above its surroundings and has a rounded summit, usually less than 300 meters (1,000 feet).

    Encyclopedic Entry: hill
    humid Adjective

    air containing a large amount of water vapor.

    insect Noun

    type of animal that breathes air and has a body divided into three segments, with six legs and usually wings.

    land cover Noun

    physical material at the very top surface of the Earth, such as grass.

    landscape Noun

    the geographic features of a region.

    Encyclopedic Entry: landscape
    map Noun

    symbolic representation of selected characteristics of a place, usually drawn on a flat surface.

    Encyclopedic Entry: map
    mold Noun

    type of fungi that forms on the surface of materials.

    naturalist Noun

    person who studies the natural history or natural development of organisms and the environment.

    PhD Noun

    (doctor of philosophy) highest degree offered by most graduate schools.

    plant Noun

    organism that produces its own food through photosynthesis and whose cells have walls.

    pollen Noun

    powdery material produced by plants.

    pollinator Noun

    animal, object, or force such as wind that transfers pollen from one plant to another, allowing seeds to develop.

    rain forest Noun

    area of tall evergreen trees and a high amount of rainfall.

    rural area Noun

    regions with low population density and large amounts of undeveloped land. Also called "the country."

    Encyclopedic Entry: rural area
    sky island Noun

    mountainous ecosystem where a single mountain is so isolated from nearby mountains that it is ecologically distinct.

    species Noun

    group of similar organisms that can reproduce with each other.

    species range Noun

    native, geographic area in which an organism can be found. Range also refers to the geographic distribution of a particular species.

    Encyclopedic Entry: species range
    stream Noun

    body of flowing water.

    Encyclopedic Entry: stream
    susceptible Adjective

    able to be influenced to behave a certain way.

    temperature Noun

    degree of hotness or coldness measured by a thermometer with a numerical scale.

    Encyclopedic Entry: temperature
    tropical Adjective

    existing in the tropics, the latitudes between the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the south.

    vegetation Noun

    all the plant life of a specific place.

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