• The Grapes of Wrath
    The Grapes of Wrath's fictional Joad family represented thousands of real migrants forced to flee the Dust Bowl for the Golden State of California.

    Photograph by Dorothea Lange, Farm Security Administration, courtesy Library of Congress

    The Plow that Broke the Plains
    For the first half of the 19th century, farmers used cast-iron plows to till soil in the Great Plains region. It wasn’t until blacksmith John Deere invented the steel plow that farmers could break down the complex root structure of Great Plains grasses on a larger scale. Deere’s plows were so effective they became known as “the plow that broke the plains.” Years later, this name would take on a new meaning as over farming in the region contributed to the Dust Bowl.
    The Harvest Gypsies
    The Grapes of Wrath was born from Steinbeck’s “The Harvest Gypsies”, a series of seven essays published in the San Francisco News in October 1936. Steinbeck’s research and observations for the series would serve as the foundation for The Grapes of Wrath two and a half years later.
    By Ryan Schleeter

    Monday, April 7, 2014

    April 14, 2014, marks the 75th anniversary of the publication of The Grapes of Wrath. In the novel, John Steinbeck follows the fictional journey of the Joads, a family of sharecroppers from Sallisaw, Oklahoma, forced to migrate west during the Dust Bowl. The Joads join thousands of other migrants on the trek to the Salinas Valley of California, a place they idealize as rich with opportunity. 
     
    In telling the story of the Joads, Steinbeck—who would win the National Book Award and the Pulitzer Prize for The Grapes of Wrath and the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1962—captures the sentiment of a pivotal period in American history, one at the intersection of the Great Depression, the Dust Bowl, and the shaping of the American West. 
     
    What Was the Dust Bowl?
     
    It’s impossible to understand the Joads or what they symbolize without understanding the Dust Bowl. Both a human and an environmental disaster, the Dust Bowl was a prolonged series of dust storms brought on by drought and erosion in the United States Great Plains region in the 1930s. 
     
    Chad Kauffman, professor of earth sciences at California University of Pennsylvania, explains that drought was not the only factor at play, however. 
     
    “There was a human influence on the Dust Bowl, as well. We don’t think of it in the context of CO2 or greenhouse gases as we do in the present context, but the human fingerprint on the Dust Bowl was agricultural practices and our ignorance of the nature of the Great Plains.”
     
    While the region saw less rainfall than usual in the 1930s, it was really the modifications humans made to the landscape—particularly uprooting native grasses and exposing the virgin topsoil to the elements—that set the stage for the erosion that would follow. 
     
    “We didn’t understand how important natural grasses were to the ecology and physical landscape of the Great Plains. We’re talking multiple feet of grass, not like how you manicure your lawn. These tall grasses have a deeper root structure, and that root structure helps to fix the soil in-place, allowing it to take on the loamy texture that made the region attractive to agriculture.”
     
    Coupled with the effects of the Depression on the nation as a whole, many families in the region were devastated, particularly those who relied on agriculture to make a living. For many, the only choice they had was to leave, and they found themselves on Route 66 headed to California. 
     
    Steinbeck’s Social Lens on Environmental History
     
    Many of these families ended up in the Salinas Valley, where John Steinbeck was born, raised, and lived the majority of his life. Dust Bowl migration, the shaping of Californian identity, and human connection to the environment are all deeply personal topics for Steinbeck. It’s no surprise, then, that these themes underpin The Grapes of Wrath
     
    Susan Shillinglaw is a Steinbeck scholar and the author of On Reading The Grapes of Wrath, which reflects on the social, political, and creative impact of The Grapes of Wrath from the time of its publication through to today. She contends that much of the book’s impact stems from the way Steinbeck was able to familiarize such a complex and interwoven set of events and experiences. 
     
    “This book is about a huge topic. It’s about a migration of over 500,000 people coming into California and the environmental disaster that caused it. How do you write about weather patterns, drought, migration, and identity at once, as it is happening? Containing that contemporary story was a challenge … and one way that he met that challenge was to construct a family story that is punctuated by interchapters that tell a larger cultural and historical story. He structured the book so that it moves from one family, to many families, to the human experience.”
     
    Capturing the human experience of migrant farmworkers also made The Grapes of Wrath controversial. The political frenzy went so far that First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt, upon reading the book, called for congressional hearings that resulted in reform to labor laws governing migrant camps. 
     
    In reality, critics had very little to argue about. Families like the Joads, or “Okies” as they were disparagingly referred to, faced awful living and working conditions throughout their migration, and even upon reaching California. 
     
    Lifelong Salinas resident Dorothy Wallace grew up next door to the Steinbeck family and was a senior at Salinas High School when The Grapes of Wrath was published. Like Steinbeck and everyone else in her community, she saw migrant families like the Joads arrive in droves, many living in cardboard boxes in camps. She also remembers how her community reacted to their arrival, and subsequently to Steinbeck’s empathetic portrayal of their struggle in The Grapes of Wrath
     
    “If you were making money, you didn’t like [Steinbeck]. If you were coming up through the classes, you were a fan of him. But even those that disliked him respected his writing. He just wrote things as they really were. I remember everything exactly as the way he wrote it. How we all felt about Okies, that word had a horrible connotation. Everybody disliked them. But his books helped people see that they were just here looking for work and trying to pull themselves up, and in the end they did. Many of them became very successful in produce, and I think that’s when people’s attitudes started to change.”
     
    In the end, this engagement with the human experience is a hallmark of Steinbeck’s work, and perhaps what keeps us talking about him today. Says Shillinglaw:
     
    “Empathy is the signature of the book—an empathetic response to human suffering. So much of the dialogue today is about taking away food stamps or welfare, for example, and Steinbeck was a passionate voice for empathy.”
     
    Current Event Connection: Drought
     
    History repeats itself, and it’s now California experiencing severe drought. In the present context, The Grapes of Wrath once again serves as a resource for examining human-environmental interaction.
     
    While there are numerous climatic and social parallels between the Dust Bowl and California’s contemporary drought, some of the most striking similarities are the economic costs. While Steinbeck captures the great struggle for migrants to find farm work in Depression-era California, according to Kauffman, today’s drought may have an even larger economic impact. 
     
    “The biggest thing you can look at is the unemployment line. Roughly ten of the top 20 metropolitan areas with the highest unemployment rates are in the Central Valley of California. That’s staggering, and it’s the direct result of fields that are fallow where they just cannot supply water . . . of course, so much of the economy in California is tied to agriculture. It’s not just job loss, but also huge profit losses at the industry level. By the end of all this, we may be looking at a multi-billion dollar disaster.”
     
    All of this challenges the popular image of California as an Edenic place. But, Shillinglaw reminds us, that image has been challenged almost since its inception, with Steinbeck one of its prime challengers. 
     
    “California has always existed as a dream for Americans, a new beginning, and yet the state betrays that illusion … In The Grapes of Wrath, California is a fallen Eden. The Joads must encounter the other side of their vision. That dream and the reality of California was Steinbeck's abiding concern.”
     
    Though it is certainly too early to draw firm comparisons between the Dust Bowl and California’s current drought, it is a testament to Steinbeck’s longevity and enduring influence that The Grapes of Wrath enters into this conversation 75 years later. Though it’s not a bad idea to take notes from the past when moving towards an uncertain future. 
     
    As Steinbeck writes through the voice of Ma Joad, “Up ahead they's a thousan' lives we might live, but when it comes it'll on'y be one.”
  • Term Part of Speech Definition Encyclopedic Entry
    abiding Adjective

    long-lasting and steady.

    agricultural practice Noun

    method used to harvest crops or care for livestock.

    agriculture Noun

    the art and science of cultivating the land for growing crops (farming) or raising livestock (ranching).

    Encyclopedic Entry: agriculture
    betray Verb

    to be disloyal to someone.

    class Noun

    division in society based on income and type of employment.

    connotation Noun

    additional meaning implied by a word or expression.

    contemporary Adjective

    having to do with the present time period.

    contend Verb

    to sincerely assert.

    context Noun

    set of facts having to do with a specific event or situation.

    controversial Noun

    questionable or leading to argument.

    devastate Verb

    to destroy.

    disaster Noun

    terrible and damaging event.

    drought Noun

    period of greatly reduced precipitation.

    Encyclopedic Entry: drought
    droves Plural Noun

    large, moving crowds of people.

    Dust Bowl Noun

    (1930-1940) term for the Great Plains of the U.S. and Canada when severe dust storms forced thousands of people off their farms.

    dust storm Noun

    weather pattern of wind blowing dust over large regions of land.

    ecology Noun

    branch of biology that studies the relationship between living organisms and their environment.

    Encyclopedic Entry: ecology
    economy Noun

    system of production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

    Edenic Adjective

    having to do with paradise, or a perfect place.

    elements Plural Noun

    weather or climate.

    empathetic Adjective

    identification with the feelings, thoughts, and attitudes of others.

    encounter Verb

    to meet, especially unexpectedly.

    engage Verb

    to become actively involved with something.

    erosion Noun

    act in which earth is worn away, often by water, wind, or ice.

    Encyclopedic Entry: erosion
    factor Noun

    element contributing to an event or outcome.

    fallow Noun

    a field not in use.

    familiarize Verb

    to understand how something works or operates.

    fiction Noun

    media, such as books or films, that are imaginative and not true stories.

    frenzy Noun

    extreme agitation or excitement.

    Great Depression Noun

    (1929-1941) period of very low economic activity in the U.S. and throughout the world.

    Great Plains Noun

    grassland region of North America, between the Rocky Mountains and the Mississippi River.

    greenhouse gas Noun

    gas in the atmosphere, such as carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and ozone, that absorbs solar heat reflected by the surface of the Earth, warming the atmosphere.

    idealize Verb

    to represent something in its perfect form.

    identity Noun

    how a person defines themselves, or how others define them.

    ignorance Noun

    lack of knowledge or education about a subject.

    illusion Noun

    plan or occurrence that creates a false belief.

    inception Noun

    origin or start.

    industry Noun

    activity that produces goods and services.

    labor Noun

    work or employment.

    landscape Noun

    the geographic features of a region.

    Encyclopedic Entry: landscape
    loam Noun

    fertile soil rich in sand, silt, and smaller amounts of clay.

    longevity Noun

    length or duration of a service, including usefulness or life itself.

    metropolitan area Noun

    region surrounding a central city and has at least 15 percent of its residents working in the central city.

    migrate Verb

    to move from one place or activity to another.

    modification Noun

    partial change or alteration.

    novel Noun

    fictional narrative or story.

    pivotal Adjective

    very important or crucial point.

    produce Noun

    agricultural products such as vegetables and fruits.

    profit Noun

    money earned after production costs and taxes are subtracted.

    prolonged Adjective

    taking more time than anticipated.

    publication Noun

    communication that is shared with the public, usually in print or electronic format.

    root Noun

    part of a plant that secures it in the soil, obtains water and nutrients, and often stores food made by leaves.

    scholar Noun

    educated person.

    sentimental Adjective

    very emotional, often evoking a memory.

    sharecropper Noun

    farmer who pays a portion of his harvested crop as rent.

    soil Noun

    top layer of the Earth's surface where plants can grow.

    staggering Adjective

    overwhelming or shocking.

    subsequent Adjective

    coming after.

    symbolize Verb

    to represent an object, idea, organization, or geographical region.

    testament Noun

    proof or evidence.

    topsoil Noun

    the most valuable, upper layer of soil, where most nutrients are found.

    trek Noun

    journey, especially across difficult terrain.

    unemployment Noun

    state of not having a job.

    weather pattern Noun

    repeating or predictable changes in the Earth's atmosphere, such as winds, precipitation, and temperatures.

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