The Plow that Broke the PlainsFor the first half of the 19th century, farmers used cast-iron plows to till soil in the Great Plains region. It wasn’t until blacksmith John Deere invented the steel plow that farmers could break down the complex root structure of Great Plains grasses on a larger scale. Deere’s plows were so effective they became known as “the plow that broke the plains.” Years later, this name would take on a new meaning as over farming in the region contributed to the Dust Bowl.The Harvest GypsiesThe Grapes of Wrath was born from Steinbeck’s “The Harvest Gypsies”, a series of seven essays published in the San Francisco News in October 1936. Steinbeck’s research and observations for the series would serve as the foundation for The Grapes of Wrath two and a half years later.
By Ryan Schleeter
Monday, April 7, 2014April 14, 2014, marks the 75th anniversary of the publication of The Grapes of Wrath. In the novel, John Steinbeck follows the fictional journey of the Joads, a family of sharecroppers from Sallisaw, Oklahoma, forced to migrate west during the Dust Bowl. The Joads join thousands of other migrants on the trek to the Salinas Valley of California, a place they idealize as rich with opportunity.In telling the story of the Joads, Steinbeck—who would win the National Book Award and the Pulitzer Prize for The Grapes of Wrath and the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1962—captures the sentiment of a pivotal period in American history, one at the intersection of the Great Depression, the Dust Bowl, and the shaping of the American West.What Was the Dust Bowl?It’s impossible to understand the Joads or what they symbolize without understanding the Dust Bowl. Both a human and an environmental disaster, the Dust Bowl was a prolonged series of dust storms brought on by drought and erosion in the United States Great Plains region in the 1930s.Chad Kauffman, professor of earth sciences at California University of Pennsylvania, explains that drought was not the only factor at play, however.“There was a human influence on the Dust Bowl, as well. We don’t think of it in the context of CO2 or greenhouse gases as we do in the present context, but the human fingerprint on the Dust Bowl was agricultural practices and our ignorance of the nature of the Great Plains.”While the region saw less rainfall than usual in the 1930s, it was really the modifications humans made to the landscape—particularly uprooting native grasses and exposing the virgin topsoil to the elements—that set the stage for the erosion that would follow.“We didn’t understand how important natural grasses were to the ecology and physical landscape of the Great Plains. We’re talking multiple feet of grass, not like how you manicure your lawn. These tall grasses have a deeper root structure, and that root structure helps to fix the soil in-place, allowing it to take on the loamy texture that made the region attractive to agriculture.”Coupled with the effects of the Depression on the nation as a whole, many families in the region were devastated, particularly those who relied on agriculture to make a living. For many, the only choice they had was to leave, and they found themselves on Route 66 headed to California.Steinbeck’s Social Lens on Environmental HistoryMany of these families ended up in the Salinas Valley, where John Steinbeck was born, raised, and lived the majority of his life. Dust Bowl migration, the shaping of Californian identity, and human connection to the environment are all deeply personal topics for Steinbeck. It’s no surprise, then, that these themes underpin The Grapes of Wrath.Susan Shillinglaw is a Steinbeck scholar and the author of On Reading The Grapes of Wrath, which reflects on the social, political, and creative impact of The Grapes of Wrath from the time of its publication through to today. She contends that much of the book’s impact stems from the way Steinbeck was able to familiarize such a complex and interwoven set of events and experiences.“This book is about a huge topic. It’s about a migration of over 500,000 people coming into California and the environmental disaster that caused it. How do you write about weather patterns, drought, migration, and identity at once, as it is happening? Containing that contemporary story was a challenge … and one way that he met that challenge was to construct a family story that is punctuated by interchapters that tell a larger cultural and historical story. He structured the book so that it moves from one family, to many families, to the human experience.”Capturing the human experience of migrant farmworkers also made The Grapes of Wrath controversial. The political frenzy went so far that First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt, upon reading the book, called for congressional hearings that resulted in reform to labor laws governing migrant camps.In reality, critics had very little to argue about. Families like the Joads, or “Okies” as they were disparagingly referred to, faced awful living and working conditions throughout their migration, and even upon reaching California.Lifelong Salinas resident Dorothy Wallace grew up next door to the Steinbeck family and was a senior at Salinas High School when The Grapes of Wrath was published. Like Steinbeck and everyone else in her community, she saw migrant families like the Joads arrive in droves, many living in cardboard boxes in camps. She also remembers how her community reacted to their arrival, and subsequently to Steinbeck’s empathetic portrayal of their struggle in The Grapes of Wrath.“If you were making money, you didn’t like [Steinbeck]. If you were coming up through the classes, you were a fan of him. But even those that disliked him respected his writing. He just wrote things as they really were. I remember everything exactly as the way he wrote it. How we all felt about Okies, that word had a horrible connotation. Everybody disliked them. But his books helped people see that they were just here looking for work and trying to pull themselves up, and in the end they did. Many of them became very successful in produce, and I think that’s when people’s attitudes started to change.”In the end, this engagement with the human experience is a hallmark of Steinbeck’s work, and perhaps what keeps us talking about him today. Says Shillinglaw:“Empathy is the signature of the book—an empathetic response to human suffering. So much of the dialogue today is about taking away food stamps or welfare, for example, and Steinbeck was a passionate voice for empathy.”Current Event Connection: DroughtHistory repeats itself, and it’s now California experiencing severe drought. In the present context, The Grapes of Wrath once again serves as a resource for examining human-environmental interaction.While there are numerous climatic and social parallels between the Dust Bowl and California’s contemporary drought, some of the most striking similarities are the economic costs. While Steinbeck captures the great struggle for migrants to find farm work in Depression-era California, according to Kauffman, today’s drought may have an even larger economic impact.“The biggest thing you can look at is the unemployment line. Roughly ten of the top 20 metropolitan areas with the highest unemployment rates are in the Central Valley of California. That’s staggering, and it’s the direct result of fields that are fallow where they just cannot supply water . . . of course, so much of the economy in California is tied to agriculture. It’s not just job loss, but also huge profit losses at the industry level. By the end of all this, we may be looking at a multi-billion dollar disaster.”All of this challenges the popular image of California as an Edenic place. But, Shillinglaw reminds us, that image has been challenged almost since its inception, with Steinbeck one of its prime challengers.“California has always existed as a dream for Americans, a new beginning, and yet the state betrays that illusion … In The Grapes of Wrath, California is a fallen Eden. The Joads must encounter the other side of their vision. That dream and the reality of California was Steinbeck's abiding concern.”Though it is certainly too early to draw firm comparisons between the Dust Bowl and California’s current drought, it is a testament to Steinbeck’s longevity and enduring influence that The Grapes of Wrath enters into this conversation 75 years later. Though it’s not a bad idea to take notes from the past when moving towards an uncertain future.As Steinbeck writes through the voice of Ma Joad, “Up ahead they's a thousan' lives we might live, but when it comes it'll on'y be one.”
Term Part of Speech Definition Encyclopedic Entry abiding Adjective
long-lasting and steady.
agricultural practice Noun
method used to harvest crops or care for livestock.
the art and science of cultivating the land for growing crops (farming) or raising livestock (ranching).
Encyclopedic Entry: agriculture betray Verb
to be disloyal to someone.
division in society based on income and type of employment.
additional meaning implied by a word or expression.
having to do with the present time period.
to sincerely assert.
set of facts having to do with a specific event or situation.
questionable or leading to argument.
terrible and damaging event.
period of greatly reduced precipitation.
Encyclopedic Entry: drought droves Plural Noun
large, moving crowds of people.
Dust Bowl Noun
(1930-1940) term for the Great Plains of the U.S. and Canada when severe dust storms forced thousands of people off their farms.
dust storm Noun
weather pattern of wind blowing dust over large regions of land.
branch of biology that studies the relationship between living organisms and their environment.
Encyclopedic Entry: ecology economy Noun
system of production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
having to do with paradise, or a perfect place.
elements Plural Noun
weather or climate.
identification with the feelings, thoughts, and attitudes of others.
to meet, especially unexpectedly.
to become actively involved with something.
act in which earth is worn away, often by water, wind, or ice.
Encyclopedic Entry: erosion factor Noun
element contributing to an event or outcome.
a field not in use.
to understand how something works or operates.
media, such as books or films, that are imaginative and not true stories.
extreme agitation or excitement.
Great Depression Noun
(1929-1941) period of very low economic activity in the U.S. and throughout the world.
Great Plains Noun
grassland region of North America, between the Rocky Mountains and the Mississippi River.
greenhouse gas Noun
gas in the atmosphere, such as carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and ozone, that absorbs solar heat reflected by the surface of the Earth, warming the atmosphere.
to represent something in its perfect form.
how a person defines themselves, or how others define them.
lack of knowledge or education about a subject.
plan or occurrence that creates a false belief.
origin or start.
activity that produces goods and services.
work or employment.
the geographic features of a region.
Encyclopedic Entry: landscape loam Noun
fertile soil rich in sand, silt, and smaller amounts of clay.
length or duration of a service, including usefulness or life itself.
metropolitan area Noun
region surrounding a central city and has at least 15 percent of its residents working in the central city.
to move from one place or activity to another.
partial change or alteration.
fictional narrative or story.
very important or crucial point.
agricultural products such as vegetables and fruits.
money earned after production costs and taxes are subtracted.
taking more time than anticipated.
communication that is shared with the public, usually in print or electronic format.
part of a plant that secures it in the soil, obtains water and nutrients, and often stores food made by leaves.
very emotional, often evoking a memory.
farmer who pays a portion of his harvested crop as rent.
top layer of the Earth's surface where plants can grow.
overwhelming or shocking.
to represent an object, idea, organization, or geographical region.
proof or evidence.
the most valuable, upper layer of soil, where most nutrients are found.
journey, especially across difficult terrain.
state of not having a job.
weather pattern Noun
repeating or predictable changes in the Earth's atmosphere, such as winds, precipitation, and temperatures.