First Heaven, Then EarthThe oldest known maps are not of Earth, but of stars in the sky. In 2000, a research team at the University of Munich discovered a map of the night sky on a wall in the Lascaux caves in central France. The map, which depicts a three-star constellation known as the Summer Triangle, dates back as much as 16,500 years.Cartographic Language“We have this very visceral and primordial connection to cartography. As a species, we made maps even before we invented writing. It’s our first language. In that sense, some aspects of cartography are innate—our ability to locate ourselves in space and to transfer that knowledge to and from maps.”—Frank Jacobs, author (Strange Maps)
By Ryan Schleeter
Friday, April 4, 2014If a picture is worth a thousand words, a map may be worth a million. Maps, infographics, and photographs blur the line between information and art, at once documenting the state of the world and presenting it in a visually dynamic way.Unlike photographs, however, no map can claim to be a direct portrait of reality.Every map, no matter how simple it appears, is shaped by the viewpoint and the choices of the person who made it. On top of that, every person who reads a map will interpret it differently than the next. Our interpretations of maps are influenced just as much by our perceptions and personal experiences as by what’s actually on the page. For this reason, understanding subjectivity has become an important part of both geography and cartography.Frank Jacobs has seen his share of subjective maps. For seven years, he has managed the Strange Maps blog, which features maps “too strange for the school atlas.” Each blog entry dissects the stories told—and sometimes hidden—by the featured map. For more than a year, Jacobs also blogged for the New York Times, a series called “Borderlines.”Jacobs’ collection includes provocative and mind-bending maps of all types—cognitive maps, historical maps, cartograms, you name it. He has featured everything from ancient maps on cave walls to remotely sensed satellite maps, and no two pieces in his collection are alike.Subjectivity and personal interpretation play huge roles in analyzing each map—and also help determine which maps Jacobs’ readers find interesting.“We have this intimate relationship with maps,” he says. “That’s partly why we see things like accidental maps. People see maps in spots of paint on the sidewalk, or they empty their coffee and in the bottom of the cup, they see Africa. It’s almost like seeing Jesus on a piece of toast. People see the shapes of countries in all kinds of objects.”Jacobs says the long history of cartography has led people to trust maps as a source of information about the world.“We have this very visceral and primordial connection to cartography,” he says. “As a species, we made maps even before we invented writing. It’s our first language. In that sense, some aspects of cartography are innate—our ability to locate ourselves in space and to transfer that knowledge to and from maps.”However, no matter how “innate” the human relationship to cartography, no map can present a completely unbiased picture of the world.“A map is always a bit of a lie because there is always something that is not on the map,” Jacobs says. “For instance, the typical map is flat while the world is round; there’s already one whole dimension that’s missing. When you read a map, you’re ingesting the point of view of the mapmaker. A map is not as blindly objective as a photograph; it’s an artifact that has been crafted to tell you a story.”No category of maps exemplifies this better than maps used for political propaganda. Throughout history, maps have been used to shape public opinion in support of a particular political message.“There’s a great map that was published in TIME magazine during the Cold War, and the title is ‘Europe As Seen From Moscow.’ The map is centered on Moscow, but the perspective is such that Western Europe on the horizon looks much smaller, and Eastern Europe, which was communist at the time, looks much larger. It looks almost inevitable from the map that communism will run over Western Europe,” Jacobs says. “The point was to magnify the imminent threat of communism.”How To Be a Critical Map ReaderSo, how can you learn to see through the little white lies in every map? According to Jacobs, the first step to becoming a critical map reader is to always question the intentions of the mapmaker.“The main question that you can ask with any map is, ‘Why?’ Why did someone make this? What’s the point? What’s the story and who is telling it?” Jacobs says. “Every map is an attempt to convince you of something; it’s like an argument. It’s in your best interest to know who is trying to convince you.”Beyond the decisions of individual cartographers, it’s also important to question the accepted practices that have become common across almost all maps.“The fundamentals of mapmaking are conventions, and these conventions were set by someone because they were convenient for that time and place,” Jacobs says. “The fact that north is up and Europe is in the middle of most maps are just some of these conventions.”To start dissecting conventional standards, take a look at maps that present the world “upside down,” show Asia in the center, or use different map projections. Maps like these offer different ways of understanding the world and a new perspective on the way different spaces relate to one another.“Take any map that surprises you, that seems somehow ‘strange.’ Why does it stop you in your tracks? What is different about it? Can you relate why it attracts your attention to who made it, and to what purpose?” Jacobs says. “If cartography is the art of wrapping up a story in a map, then map reading is like a journey of discovery for that story.”
Term Part of Speech Definition Encyclopedic Entry ancient Adjective
representation of a region depicting the size of an object in relation to an attribute rather than land area.
art and science of making maps.
underground chamber that opens to the surface. Cave entrances can be on land or in water.
to give as an example.
cognitive map Noun
map that represents the image a person or group of people have of an area. Also called a mental map.
Cold War Noun
(1947-1991) conflict between the Soviet Union (and its allies) and the United States (and its allies). The two sides never confronted each other directly.
easy or available.
expected or having to do with accepted standards or principles.
to carefully cut apart.
to keep track of.
always changing or in motion.
basic or primary.
study of places and the relationships between people and their environments.
Encyclopedic Entry: geography historical map Noun
representation of spatial information displaying sites of historical interest.
likely to occur soon.
certain to happen, unavoidable.
visual representation of data. Also called information graphic or graphic.
based in instinct, not learned or experienced.
to explain or understand the meaning of something.
very personal or private.
to increase the apparent size of an object.
symbolic representation of selected characteristics of a place, usually drawn on a flat surface.
Encyclopedic Entry: map map projection Noun
method by which shapes on a globe are transferred to a flat surface.
understanding or point of view.
representation of volume or depth on a flat surface.
image produced by the reaction of light and certain chemical substances on paper or another medium.
having to do with the very beginning of something.
information or ideas specifically intended to help or hurt the cause of an organization.
stimulating of thought or emotions.
satellite map Noun
representation of spatial information based on photographs or other images taken from above Earth's atmosphere.
state of mind recognizing the thoughts and motivations of the person (subject) considering an object or idea, and not the state of the object or idea being considered.
not prejudiced or favoring one specific outcome.
having to do with deep, inward emotions or instinct.