Article

It's a jungle in there!

Photograph by Stefano Bolognini, courtesy Wikimedia Commons.  This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

School of Ants
School of Ants is a citizen science project that looks at the ants that live in urban areas, especially around homes and schools. From the School of Ants website: “Learn how to create your own sampling kit, sample your backyard or schoolyard, and get our collection back to us so that we can ID the ants and add your species list to the big School of Ants map. Together we'll map ant diversity and species ranges across North America!” Click here to get started!
 
Interested in ants? Holly Menninger, NC State’s director of public science, has just the book for you! “We've just released a free eBook called Dr. Eleanor's Book of Common Ants that will surprise and delight young readers with stories (and outstanding photos) of some of the most common ants in North America.”

By Kimberly Dumke

Wednesday, May 22, 2013

Look at your navel. Do you know what it is? It is a scar, or mark, that remains where your umbilical cord attached you to your mother before you were born. 
 
Your navel is technically named the umbilicus and is commonly called the “belly button.” All humans have them. Other mammals have them as well, although theirs are usually smooth or flat—often just a thin line hidden by fur
 
Look at your belly button again. Are you an “innie” or an “outie”? If you have an indentation or depression—if you can put the tip of your finger in—then you are an innie. Most people are innies. If you have a bump or protrusion, then you are an outie. 
 
What do you think is in your belly button? In 2011, a team of scientists launched the Belly Button Biodiversity Project to find out. These scientists were from the biology department of North Carolina State University (NC State) and the Nature Research Center (NRC) at the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences. 
 
“We're interested in helping people understand and appreciate the microscopic species with which we share our daily lives,” says team member Dr. Holly Menninger, an entomologist and NC State’s director of public science. 
 
Usually when we think of body bacteria, she says, we think of the bad microbes that cause illness. But in reality, most of the organisms on our skin are our first line of protection from pathogens—organisms that can cause disease.
 
It’s a Jungle in There!
 
For this project, people wiped cotton swabs in or on their belly buttons. The first group of 66 samples was collected from visitors to the museum and other participants.  
 
Dr. Meg Lowman, a team member and director of the NRC, says, “This project was not only inclusive of all visitors, but also helped teach them about the challenges and techniques behind the collection of scientific data.”
 
The research team discovered that belly buttons are very diverse habitats! In total, they discovered 2,368 different species. More than half of those may be new to science. 
 
“The belly buttons reminded me of rain forests,” wrote Dr. Rob Dunn, a biologist at NC State and the project’s leader, in a blog post. “They differed more than we expected.”
 
Each participant’s belly button hosted about 67 different species. Yet not one was common to every person, and only eight were found on at least 70 percent of participants. 
 
The team considered factors including age, sex, and whether the person had an innie or an outie. Despite this research, the scientists can’t quite explain why some belly buttons had a particular species, while others did not. 
 
The researchers did learn, however, that the eight most common species were among the most abundant. This means that if a species was found in a belly button, that belly button usually had a lot of that species!
 
In November 2012, the team published their first findings in a paper called “A Jungle in There: Bacteria in Belly Buttons are Highly Diverse, But Predictable.” They will soon have 600 samples from people all over North America. 
 
“With this variety, we may well begin to explain the differences among people in terms of the intimate forests of their umbilicus,” Dunn wrote. 
 
Citizen Science
 
Menninger’s team is passionate about engaging people of all ages in the whole process of science, from collecting and analyzing data, to making observations, producing new hypotheses, and determining what to study next. 
 
Both NC State’s biology department and NRC have multiple citizen science initiatives to get the public involved. These include Armpit-pa-looza, a study of armpits; a census of camel crickets (also known as “sprickets”); and School of Ants, which is identifying ants and mapping their biodiversity across the United States. 
 
“One doesn't have to go off to the Amazon rain forest to experience biodiversity. It exists in your backyard, your basement and even your belly button!” says Menninger. “This biodiversity is critical to the functioning and health of our ecosystems—be that on our skin, or our forests and streams.” 
 
So, will you be a citizen scientist? Join up here!

Vocabulary

Term Part of Speech Definition Encyclopedic Entry

abundant

Adjective

in large amounts.

bacteria

Plural Noun

(singular: bacterium) single-celled organisms found in every ecosystem on Earth.

biodiversity

Noun

all the different kinds of living organisms within a given area.

Encyclopedic Entry: biodiversity

biology

Noun

study of living things.

citizen science

Noun

science project or program where volunteers who are not scientists conduct surveys, take measurements, or record observations.

Encyclopedic Entry: citizen science

critical

Adjective

very important.

data

Plural Noun

(singular: datum) information collected during a scientific study.

depression

Noun

indentation or dip in the landscape.

diverse

Adjective

varied or having many different types.

ecosystem

Noun

community and interactions of living and nonliving things in an area.

Encyclopedic Entry: ecosystem

entomologist

Noun

person who studies insects and their interaction with the environment.

forest

Noun

ecosystem filled with trees and underbrush.

function

Verb

to work or work correctly.

fur

Noun

thick hair covering the skin of an animal.

habitat

Noun

environment where an organism lives throughout the year or for shorter periods of time.

Encyclopedic Entry: habitat

hypothesis

Noun

statement or suggestion that explains certain questions about certain facts. A hypothesis is tested to determine if it is accurate.

indentation

Noun

dent, cut, or depression.

initiative

Noun

first step or move in a plan.

intimate

Adjective

very personal or private.

mammal

Noun

animal with hair that gives birth to live offspring. Female mammals produce milk to feed their offspring.

microbe

Noun

tiny organism, usually a bacterium.

microscopic

Adjective

very small.

navel

Noun

mark or indentation on a mammal's abdomen that indicates where the umbilical cord linking the fetus and the mother was attached. Also called an umbilicus or belly button.

obscure

Verb

to darken or partially block.

pathogen

Noun

organism that causes a disease, such as a virus.

protrusion

Noun

something that swells or sticks out.

rain forest

Noun

area of tall evergreen trees and a high amount of rainfall.

species

Noun

group of similar organisms that can reproduce with each other.

stream

Noun

body of flowing water.

Encyclopedic Entry: stream

umbilical cord

Noun

flexible cord connecting the fetus of a mammal with the mother's placenta, providing nourishment to the fetus. Also called a funis.

Credits

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Writer

Kimberly Dumke

Editors

Kara West
Jeannie Evers

Producer

Caryl-Sue, National Geographic Society

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