• Agricultural Ecologist: David Lobell
    David Lobell is an agricultural ecologist.

    Photograph courtesy the John D. & Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. This image is licensed under a Creative Commons license.

    What’s your staple crop? 
    According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 15 crops account for roughly 90% of the world’s caloric intake, excluding meat. Maize (corn), rice, and wheat are the three most prevalent crops, and serve as the staple crop for over four billion people. The top ten staple crops in 2012 were maize, rice, wheat, potatoes, cassava, soybeans, barley, sweet potatoes, sorghum, and yams.
    By Ryan Schleeter

    Wednesday, November 13, 2013

    David Lobell is an agricultural ecologist and a 2013 MacArthur Fellow. He uses advanced satellite, remote sensing, and geographic information systems (GIS) technologies to research ways to sustainably feed the world’s growing population. His latest work helps measure the direct impact of climate change on global food systems. 
     
    EARLY WORK
     
    David had an innate curiosity about food from a young age, despite his urban upbringing. 
     
    “Everybody has some sort of interest in food at some level, even if it’s just eating. I grew up very removed from any sort of agriculture, and that probably had some sort of perverse impact on me becoming really fascinated by it because I just was not exposed to it as a kid.”
     
    David’s first experiences doing field work cemented his desire to continue to work with food and agriculture. As a graduate student, he began working with the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center in Mexico (Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo, or CIMMYT). CIMMYT works to reduce worldwide poverty and hunger by increasing the productivity of maize (corn) and wheat, both important food staples. 
     
    MOST EXCITING PART OF YOUR WORK
     
    Much of David’s time is spent trying to make sense of raw data on agricultural productivity. 
     
    “I like to do puzzles and work with numbers. For me, the most rewarding thing day in [and] day out is figuring out what the data is saying and what patterns there are in these large, noisy data sets that we work with. Sometimes it feels like we’re completing a jigsaw puzzle.”
     
    More importantly, David and his team are excited to see when their analysis influences the decisions of farmers, plant breeders, and agronomists. These everyday decisions change the way our food is grown. 
     
    “The most rewarding for me is when somebody who’s working in agriculture tells me that my work helped them change what they were doing or think about something differently. That’s when I get to feeling like I’m making an impact.”
     
    David’s recent findings, for example, helped farmers adapt their techniques to cope with higher overall temperatures due to climate change. This allows them to maintain productivity and continue feeding large populations despite the changing environmental context. 
     
    MOST DEMANDING PART OF YOUR WORK
     
    Over the course of his career, the challenges David faces have shifted considerably. 
     
    “When I was getting into this work about ten years ago, the biggest challenge was that nobody really cared about agriculture, but that didn’t really bother me. Still, it was very hard to find an audience and raise money in academia. . . . Over time, agriculture and food have both become much more popular [fields of study] as we’ve seen food prices go up. So that’s less of a challenge now.”
     
    David attributes the increased interest in agriculture and food security to the overall rise in attention to climate change in recent years. 
     
    HOW DO YOU DEFINE GEOGRAPHY? 
     
    “I’ve always heard varying definitions. One time I interviewed in a geography department and they told me that their definition of geography is whatever a geographer is doing! To me, geography is anything that has place or space as its central element.
     
    “A lot of what we do in agriculture is getting information about spatial variation. Anytime you have spatial information associated with your analysis, that is inherently place-based.”
     
    GEO-CONNECTION
     
    The geographic notion of variation across space is central to David and his team’s research strategy. 
     
    “For us, looking at different locations is a great way of testing theories or calibrating models. There’s a lot of information to be found by comparing different places. In our studies, we have thousands of different places, each with slightly different attributes. We use that variation to understand things.”
     
    Furthermore, “the importance of place and local context” plays a large role in seeking solutions to the various problems David and his team help address.
     
    Geographic tools like GIS, remote sensing, and satellite imagery also have an important place in the data-collection process, and allow David and his team to look deeper into spatial patterns. In fact, David estimates that roughly half of his work involves satellite data. 
     
    SO, YOU WANT TO BE AN . . . AGRICULTURAL ECOLOGIST
     
    David encourages anyone interested in agriculture to take advantage of opportunities to explore agricultural regions using online tools like Google Earth, something he does regularly in his classes at Stanford University.
     
    “Go into Google Earth and tour around the agricultural areas of the world. You can learn a lot by looking at the landscapes there.” 
     
    For students in particular, David emphasizes the importance of thinking creatively, especially in the sciences. 
     
    “There’s a notion that all science is done by certain robots out there who know exactly what they’re doing and it’s a very linear path. But there’s a real creative element of science, as well. Once you become an expert at something, you can really think creatively and [about] what else you can do. It’s hard to see the light at the end of that tunnel when you’re in middle school or high school, to think that you could one day be the person creating things no one thought was possible, but it’s really a lot of fun in the end.”
     
    GET INVOLVED
     
    Organizations like the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Food and Agriculture Association (FAO) release periodic updates on the state of food security or agricultural production in different regions of the world, making it easy to follow the latest developments in the field.
  • Term Part of Speech Definition Encyclopedic Entry
    academia Noun

    social, cultural, and professional atmosphere surrounding colleges and universities.

    agriculture Noun

    the art and science of cultivating the land for growing crops (farming) or raising livestock (ranching).

    Encyclopedic Entry: agriculture
    agronomist Noun

    person who studies soil and its role in agriculture.

    analysis Noun

    process of studying a problem or situation, identifying its characteristics and how they are related.

    calibrate Verb

    to check the accuracy of an instrument or set of measurements.

    climate change Noun

    gradual changes in all the interconnected weather elements on our planet.

    Encyclopedic Entry: climate change
    context Noun

    set of facts having to do with a specific event or situation.

    crop yield Noun

    material produced by a farmer or farm, usually measured in weight per hectare.

    data set Noun

    collection of data, usually presented in list form.

    ecologist Noun

    scientist who studies the relationships between organisms and their environments.

    farmer Noun

    person who cultivates land and raises crops.

    fascinate Verb

    to cause an interest in.

    field work Noun

    scientific studies done outside of a lab, classroom, or office.

    Encyclopedic Entry: field work
    food Noun

    material, usually of plant or animal origin, that living organisms use to obtain nutrients.

    Encyclopedic Entry: food
    food security Noun

    access a person, family, or community has to healthy foods.

    food staple Noun

    food that can be prepared, stored, and eaten throughout the year.

    geographic information system (GIS) Noun

    any system for capturing, storing, checking, and displaying data related to positions on the Earth's surface.

    Encyclopedic Entry: GIS (geographic information system)
    geography Noun

    study of places and the relationships between people and their environments.

    Encyclopedic Entry: geography
    graduate student Noun

    person who pursues a college or university degree program beyond the basic bachelor's degree.

    hunger Noun

    the need for food.

    innate Adjective

    based in instinct, not learned or experienced.

    landscape Noun

    the geographic features of a region.

    Encyclopedic Entry: landscape
    MacArthur Fellow Noun

    person recognized with an unrestricted fellowship by the MacArthur Foundation—an award given "to talented individuals who have shown extraordinary originality and dedication in their creative pursuits and a marked capacity for self-direction."

    maize Noun

    corn.

    perverse Adjective

    obstinate or contrary.

    plant breeder Noun

    person who studies the inherited characteristics of plants, and works to combine and reproduce them using hybrids and genetic engineering.

    poverty Noun

    status of having very little money or material goods.

    productivity Noun

    rate at which goods and services are produced.

    remote sensing Noun

    methods of information-gathering about the Earth's surface from a distance.

    research Noun

    scientific observations and investigation into a subject, usually following the scientific method: observation, hypothesis, prediction, experimentation, analysis, and conclusion.

    robot Noun

    machine that can be programmed to perform automatic, mechanical tasks.

    satellite imagery Noun

    photographs of a planet taken by or from a satellite.

    sustainable Adjective

    able to be continued at the same rate for a long period of time.

    temperature Noun

    degree of hotness or coldness measured by a thermometer with a numerical scale.

    Encyclopedic Entry: temperature
    urban Adjective

    having to do with city life.

    variation Noun

    difference.

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