• Roots of Sustainability
    Pike Place Market, in Seattle, Washington, above, is one of the oldest farmers' markets in the U.S. It opened in 1907.

    Photograph by Jennifer Somerton, MyShot

    Food Deserts
    A food desert is an area in the United States with limited access to affordable and nutritious food, particularly such an area composed of predominantly lower-income neighborhoods and communities.

    Use the U.S. Department of Agricultures Food Desert Locator to see a map of food deserts in America.

    Find a CSA
    Community-supported agriculture is a network that brings fresh produce from local farms to consumers. Find a CSA farm near you at LocalHarvest.org

    By Caitlin MacNeal

    Tuesday, September 20, 2011

    New discoveries and technological breakthroughs are made every year. Yet, as the information sector moves forward, many people in society are looking back to their roots in terms of the way they eat.

    A “locavore” movement has emerged in the United States. The locavore movement supports eating foods grown locally and sustainably, rather than pre-packaged foods shipped from other parts of the world.

    Experts debate the merits and consequences of eating local, as well as the trend’s staying power.

    Erin Barnett is the director of Local Harvest, a company that aims to help connect people to farms in their area. By eating local, she argues, people have a better, more personal understanding of the impact their food consumption has on the rest of the world.

    “There is a way of connecting the dots, where eating locally is an act that . . . tightens our awareness around our sense of place,” says Barnett.

    Agriculture in the U.S.

    The United States’ agricultural output is one of the highest in the world, says Timothy Beach, a professor of geography and geoscience at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C.

    “There’s just no other place on Earth where the amount of input is so productive,” Beach says of American agriculture. “Nobody can cut off a food we need.”

    However, the U.S. food system is not sustainable because of its dependency on fossil fuels, says Beach. Equipment used on “tremendously productive” farms is quickly depleting the Earth’s natural resources, particularly petroleum. Additionally, production of agricultural supplements such as fertilizer uses large amounts of energy.

    The world has used close to half of the global petroleum supply, he says, and the second half will be depleted at an even faster rate because of growing population and economic development. There is “no way on Earth we are using [fossil fuels] sustainably,” he says.

    Although many businesses are experimenting with wind, solar, and biofuel, Beach says there is no substitute for petroleum.

    “There’s nothing that we see on the horizon that can replace it,” he says.

    A Shift Toward Sustainability

    Louise Keckler, a farmer, believes the push for sustainability should not come from politicians, but from farmers.

    Keckler and her husband, Gregg, own Orchard Country Produce, a farm in Cumberland County, Pennsylvania. The farm provides food for community-supported agriculture (CSA), a network that brings fresh produce from local farms to consumers. As part of a CSA network, a customer regularly receives fruits or vegetables that are in season.

    Eating fresh food from local farms that practice sustainable agriculture has multiple benefits. The nutritional value is evident, Beach says.

    “It’s a healthy thing individually for Americans,” he says, citing the fact that overconsumption and obesity are on the rise in the U.S. and in Europe.

    Barnett points out that eating local—for example, by participating in a CSA—contextualizes food. It helps educate people about the potential effects of global warming on food production. By understanding how climate and weather patterns affect what we eat, we realize the impact our choices have on the land around us, she says.

    “That non-anonymity, the personal-ness and the intimacy that eating local can create in our lives, can only help us as we begin to face the climate changes,” Barnett says.

    Fad, Trend, or Revolution?

    There is some debate about whether eating local is a sustainable solution to an unsustainable system.

    “If it’s a wedge of health and food education, then it’s obviously a good thing,” says Beach.

    He is not sure if the locavore movement is a fad or a revolution. Whatever the case, he believes the U.S. could still feed the country without the large-input system currently in place.

    “I think we could feed ourselves on fully sustainable agriculture,” he says.

    “I would call it a trend versus a fad,” says Barnett. “I think that we are in the process of returning to a way of eating that is much more congruent with who our species is.”

    Says Keckler: “I think that it’s becoming a way of life for a lot of people. It is more about people coming back to their roots.”

    Keckler says the locavore movement is also a revelation for farmers: “You don’t have to have hundreds and hundreds of acres to make a living.”

    Urban Sustainable

    In fact, you don’t even need a farm. As the locavore trend becomes more popular, people are providing their own fresh, local produce.

    “No matter how much space you have,” says Kirk Wilbur, “you still have enough room to grow some food.”

    Wilbur is a product developer at Urban Sustainable, a store in Washington, D.C., that provides city residents with a place to buy seeds and farming equipment. The demand for such products is high, he says.

    “The response has just been overwhelming,” he says of the store’s first seven months in D.C.

    Gardening at home is a more affordable option for those who wish to eat locally grown foods, Wilbur says. For instance, the seeds and soil needed to grow tomato plants cost a fraction of the price of tomatoes in the grocery store.

    “It’s extremely cost-effective right now,” he says. “The biggest cost is your time.”

  • Term Part of Speech Definition Encyclopedic Entry
    agricultural output Noun

    total amount of goods produced in the agricultural industry.

    agriculture Noun

    the art and science of cultivating the land for growing crops (farming) or raising livestock (ranching).

    Encyclopedic Entry: agriculture
    anonymity Noun

    position of not having a known name or identity.

    biofuel Noun

    energy source derived directly from organic matter, such as plants.

    city Noun

    large settlement with a high population density.

    climate Noun

    all weather conditions for a given location over a period of time.

    Encyclopedic Entry: climate
    climate change Noun

    gradual changes in all the interconnected weather elements on our planet.

    Encyclopedic Entry: climate change
    congruent Adjective

    agreeing with or complementary to.

    consequence Noun

    result or outcome of an action or situation.

    consumer Noun

    person who uses a good or service.

    contextualize Verb

    to put an idea into a set of historic, geographic, or other circumstances (context).

    CSA Noun

    (community-supported agriculture) system where people buy into a local farm and receive seasonal produce in return.

    deplete Verb

    to use up.

    economic development Noun

    rise in the standard of living of a community, including jobs, health care, and educational opportunities for residents.

    emerge Verb

    to develop or come into view.

    equipment Noun

    tools and materials to perform a task or function.

    farm Noun

    land cultivated for crops, livestock, or both.

    farmer Noun

    person who cultivates land and raises crops.

    fertilizer Noun

    nutrient-rich chemical substance (natural or manmade) applied to soil to encourage plant growth.

    food Noun

    material, usually of plant or animal origin, that living organisms use to obtain nutrients.

    Encyclopedic Entry: food
    food system Noun

    connected processes involved in growing and distributing food to a population.

    fossil fuel Noun

    coal, oil, or natural gas. Fossil fuels formed from the remains of ancient plants and animals.

    geography Noun

    study of places and the relationships between people and their environments.

    Encyclopedic Entry: geography
    geoscience Noun

    branches of study that focus on the origin and structure of the Earth. Also called Earth science.

    global warming Noun

    increase in the average temperature of the Earth's air and oceans.

    Encyclopedic Entry: global warming
    information sector Noun

    part of the larger service sector of an economy, based on the exchange of knowledge and ideas.

    input Noun

    something that is contributed, or put in, to something else.

    intimacy Noun

    close, familiar relationship.

    locavore Noun

    person who prefers to buy and eat food that has been raised or grown locally.

    merit Noun

    something that deserves a benefit, reward, or recognition.

    natural resource Noun

    a material that humans take from the natural environment to survive, to satisfy their needs, or to trade with others.

    obesity Noun

    medical condition where excess body fat increases risk for disease and death.

    petroleum Noun

    fossil fuel formed from the remains of ancient organisms. Also called crude oil.

    politician Noun

    person who serves as a representative of the citizens of a geographic area to the local, state, or national government.

    potential Noun

    possibility.

    produce Noun

    agricultural products such as vegetables and fruits.

    revelation Noun

    something that is revealed, often in a surprising manner.

    seed Noun

    part of a plant from which a new plant grows.

    solar Adjective

    having to do with the sun.

    supplement Verb

    to increase or add to.

    sustainable Adjective

    able to be continued at the same rate for a long period of time.

    weather pattern Noun

    repeating or predictable changes in the Earth's atmosphere, such as winds, precipitation, and temperatures.

    wind Noun

    movement of air (from a high pressure zone to a low pressure zone) caused by the uneven heating of the Earth by the sun.

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