• This poster is an advertisement for a slave sale, held in 1760 in Charleston, South Carolina. The poster would have been displayed weeks before the sale, on public bulletin boards, in the windows of local businesses, and in newspapers and pamphlets.

    Slaves from this ship (the Bance-Island) would have been of particular interest to South Carolina plantation owners, because they hailed from the "Windward and Rice Coasts." The Windward and Rice Coasts lie along Africa's central Atlantic shoreline, and include the present-day nations of Sierra Leone, Liberia, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, and Benin.

    Slaves from the Rice Coast were valuable to South Carolina farmers because they were familiar with growing and harvesting the colony's cash crops, rice and indigo. Slave traders who saw African farmers cultivate rice along the Rice Coast immediately recognized the potential for growing the crop in the "Low Country" of South Carolina, which shares a similar geography and climate: flat, tidal streams and flood plains; barrier islands; humid summers; and forested inland areas.

    Africans brought to colonial America as slaves helped establish the rice-based economy of South Carolina. African slaves knew how to regulate irrigation with levees, flood gates, and drains. Their knowledge contributed to the shift of rice cultivation from inland swamps to tidal flood plains. By the time of the American Revolution, the crop was second only to tobacco in terms of economic value to the new nation.

    Slaves were also instrumental in indigo production. Indigo is native to tropical Africa, and communities along the Windward and Rice Coasts had hundreds of years' experience cultivating the plant and producing its valuable dye. In particular, Africans knew the complex chemical process needed to transfer the blue color to fabric—the dye is not water-soluble. In 1744, Eliza Pickney, a white woman, and unnamed African slaves cultivated a new strain of indigo that flourished in South Carolina. It soon became the colony's other cash crop.

    Slaves sold at Charleston auctions like this one were immediately put to work, mostly in indigo and rice plantations. The work was exhausting—backbreaking labor in flooded fields susceptible to harmful microbes and mosquitoes. More than a third of slave children died before their first birthday, mostly due to malaria and malnutrition.

    Colonial travelers to South Carolina's plantations called the rice and indigo fields "charnel houses."

  • Term Part of Speech Definition Encyclopedic Entry
    cash crop Noun

    agricultural product raised to be sold for goods and services, not consumed by the farmer.

    charnel house Noun

    place where dead bodies are kept.

    colony Noun

    people and land separated by distance or culture from the government that controls them.

    crop Noun

    agricultural produce.

    Encyclopedic Entry: crop
    cultivate Verb

    to prepare and nurture the land for crops.

    economy Noun

    system of production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

    geography Noun

    study of places and the relationships between people and their environments.

    Encyclopedic Entry: geography
    irrigation Noun

    watering land, usually for agriculture, by artificial means.

    Encyclopedic Entry: irrigation
    malaria Noun

    infectious disease caused by a parasite carried by mosquitoes.

    malnutrition Noun

    lack of a balanced diet.

    plantation Noun

    large estate or farm involving large landholdings and many workers.

    slave Noun

    person who is owned by another person or group of people.

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