Directions

Activity 1: Marine Protected Areas

Photo: Saipan Island in Micronesia.

Students explore Marine Protected Areas on an interactive map, compare and contrast marine and terrestrial protected areas, and discuss the importance of Marine Protected Areas.

Activity 2: Marine Protected Areas: Case Studies

Photo: Sharks swimming among fishes in a coral reef.

Students compare and contrast two Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) by evaluating case studies. Then they learn how the MPA classification system works in the United States and apply that system to the MPA case studies.

Activity 3: Marine Protected Areas: Student Case Studies

Photo: Student Doing Marine Science

Students create posters or other media that serve as case studies for specific Marine Protected Areas. They briefly present their MPAs, answer questions, and peer-assess classmates' work and presentations.

Objectives

Subjects & Disciplines

  • Adult and Family Literacy
    • Adult & Child development
    • Advocacy
    • Citizenship
    • Community Involvement
    • English-language Learning
    • GED preparation
  • Geography
  • Science
  • Social Studies
    • Current events/issues

Objectives

Students will:

  • list reasons a Marine Protected Area might be established
  • compare and contrast marine and terrestrial protected areas
  • give and support their opinions about resource management of marine areas
  • create posters or other media that provide information on a Marine Protected Area in a visually-appealing way
  • describe different management practices based on the type of Marine Protected Area
  • evaluate and discuss case studies about different Marine Protected Areas throughout the world
  • compare and contrast two different Marine Protected Areas
  • identify characteristics for classifying Marine Protected Areas
  • explain the importance of classifying Marine Protected Areas

Teaching Approach

  • Application: Coach
  • Learning-for-use

Teaching Methods

  • Assessment
  • Brainstorming
  • Cooperative learning
  • Discussions
  • Information organization
  • Multimedia instruction
  • Reading
  • Writing

National Standards, Principles, and Practices

Energy Literacy Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts

National Council for Social Studies Curriculum Standards

  • Theme 3: People, Places, and Environments

National Geography Standards

  • Standard 14: How human actions modify the physical environment
  • Standard 16: The changes that occur in the meaning, use, distribution, and importance of resources
  • Standard 4: The physical and human characteristics of places
  • Standard 5: That people create regions to interpret Earth's complexity

National Science Education Standards

Ocean Literacy Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts

  • Principle 5c: Some major groups are found exclusively in the ocean. The diversity of major groups of organisms is much greater in the ocean than on land.
  • Principle 5d: Ocean biology provides many unique examples of life cycles, adaptations and important relationships among organisms (such as symbiosis, predator-prey dynamics and energy transfer) that do not occur on land.
  • Principle 5e: The ocean is three-dimensional, offering vast living space and diverse habitats from the surface through the water column to the seafloor. Most of the living space on Earth is in the ocean.
  • Principle 5f: Ocean habitats are defined by environmental factors. Due to interactions of abiotic factors such as salinity, temperature, oxygen, pH, light, nutrients, pressure, substrate and circulation, ocean life is not evenly distributed temporally or spatially, i.e., it is “patchy”. Some regions of the ocean support more diverse and abundant life than anywhere on Earth, while much of the ocean is considered a desert.
  • Principle 5h: Tides, waves and predation cause vertical zonation patterns along the shore, influencing the distribution and diversity of organisms.
  • Principle 6b: From the ocean we get foods, medicines, and mineral and energy resources. In addition, it provides jobs, supports our nation’s economy, serves as a highway for transportation of goods and people, and plays a role in national security.
  • Principle 6c: The ocean is a source of inspiration, recreation, rejuvenation and discovery. It is also an important element in the heritage of many cultures.
  • Principle 6d: Much of the world’s population lives in coastal areas.
  • Principle 6e: Humans affect the ocean in a variety of ways. Laws, regulations and resource management affect what is taken out and put into the ocean. Human development and activity leads to pollution (such as point source, non-point source, and noise pollution) and physical modifications (such as changes to beaches, shores and rivers). In addition, humans have removed most of the large vertebrates from the ocean.
  • Principle 6g: Everyone is responsible for caring for the ocean. The ocean sustains life on Earth and humans must live in ways that sustain the ocean. Individual and collective actions are needed to effectively manage ocean resources for all.

Preparation

What You’ll Need

Materials You Provide

  • 1 small, soft ball
  • 2 Cups of dry ice (frozen carbon dioxide)
  • 2 Cups of water
  • 2-liter bottle preforms (optional)
  • 2 pieces of stiff, white cardboard
  • 2 spoonfuls of sand or dirt
  • Paper
  • Pencils

Background & Vocabulary

Background Information


Prior Knowledge

  • None

Recommended Prior Lessons

  • None


Vocabulary

Term Part of Speech Definition Encyclopedic Entry

case study

form of problem-based learning, where the teacher presents a situation that needs a resolution. The learner is given details about the situation, often in a historical context. The stakeholders are introduced. Objectives and challenges are outlined. This is followed by specific examples and data, which the learner then uses to analyze the situation, determine what happened, and make recommendations.

marine protected area (MPA)

area of the ocean where a government has placed limits on human activity.

stakeholder

person or organization that has an interest or investment in a place, situation or company.

Credits

Media Credits

The audio, illustrations, photos, and videos are credited beneath the media asset, except for promotional images, which generally link to another page that contains the media credit. The Rights Holder for media is the person or group credited.

Activity 1 Credits

Writer

Nancee Hunter
Angela M. Cowan, Education Specialist and Curriculum Designer

Editor

Chris Celauro
Julie Brown, National Geographic Society
Elizabeth Wolzak, National Geographic Society

Educator Reviewer

Mark H. Bockenhauer, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Geography, St. Norbert College
Elizabeth Wolzak, National Geographic Society

Expert Reviewer

Sarah Wilson, National Geographic Society
Julie Brown, National Geographic Society

National Geographic Program

2010 National Teacher Leadership Institute: Oceans

National Geographic Explorer

Dr. Enric Sala

Other

Special thanks to the educators who participated in National Geographic's 2010-2011 National Teacher Leadership Academy (NTLA), for testing activities in their classrooms and informing the content for all of the Ocean: Marine Ecology, Human Impacts, and Conservation resources.

Activity 2 Credits

Writer

Nancee Hunter
Angela M. Cowan, Education Specialist and Curriculum Designer

Editor

Christina Riska, National Geographic Society
Julie Brown, National Geographic Society
Elizabeth Wolzak, National Geographic Society

Educator Reviewer

Mark H. Bockenhauer, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Geography, St. Norbert College
Elizabeth Wolzak, National Geographic Society

Expert Reviewer

Sarah Wilson, National Geographic Society
Julie Brown, National Geographic Society

National Geographic Program

2010 National Teacher Leadership Institute: Oceans

Other

Special thanks to the educators who participated in National Geographic's 2010-2011 National Teacher Leadership Academy (NTLA), for testing activities in their classrooms and informing the content for all of the Ocean: Marine Ecology, Human Impacts, and Conservation resources.

Activity 3 Credits

Writer

Nancee Hunter
Angela M. Cowan, Education Specialist and Curriculum Designer

Editor

Christina Riska, National Geographic Society
Julie Brown, National Geographic Society
Elizabeth Wolzak, National Geographic Society

Educator Reviewer

Mark H. Bockenhauer, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Geography, St. Norbert College
Elizabeth Wolzak, National Geographic Society

Expert Reviewer

Sarah Wilson, National Geographic Society
Julie Brown, National Geographic Society

National Geographic Program

2010 National Teacher Leadership Institute: Oceans

Other

Special thanks to the educators who participated in National Geographic's 2010-2011 National Teacher Leadership Academy (NTLA), for testing activities in their classrooms and informing the content for all of the Ocean: Marine Ecology, Human Impacts, and Conservation resources.

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