Encyclopedic Entry

Springtime comes to the million acres of wilderness of Glacier National Park.

Photograph by: Lawrence Stolte, My Shot

Walden Pond
The 1854 book Walden, by Henry David Thoreau, is often associated with wilderness. Thoreau, an American writer and philosopher, lived for two years in a cabin near Walden Pond, in Concord, Massachusetts. At the time, the land was owned by Thoreau's friend, poet Ralph Waldo Emerson. Today, Walden Pond is legally protected by the state of Massachusetts. It is a popular destination for hiking, swimming, and tourism related to Thoreau. Sometimes, Walden Pond is too popularauthorities have to close it to prevent the wilderness habitat from being permanently damaged from all the human interaction.

A wilderness is an area of land that has been largely undisturbed by modern human development. Wilderness areas usually lack roads, buildings, and other artificial structures. They provide a natural environment for plant and animal species, and allow scientists to study healthy ecosystems.

Very few places on Earth are complete, or pristine, wildernesses. A wilderness can be reclaimed or restored, and the way a wilderness is managed can change at any time.

There are wilderness areas in every ecosystem, on every continent. The Great Barrier Reef in Australia, the worlds largest coral reef, is an aquatic wilderness that is home to dozens of endangered birds, fish, mammals, and reptiles. The Mavuradonha Wilderness in Zimbabwe features elephants, zebras, and crocodiles in their natural habitat.

Some wilderness areas are huge. Most of the continent of Antarctica is one big wilderness. Some wilderness areas are small and often located in unexpected places. Ernest E. Debs Regional Park is a wilderness area in the large,densely populated urban center of Los Angeles, California.

The WILD Foundation, an organization dedicated to preserving wilderness areas around the world, defines a wilderness in two ways. Wilderness is biologically intact, meaning the natural biodiversity of a place exists in some form. Wilderness is also legally protected, meaning a government has laws to limit people from developing the wilderness.

People have lived with nature for thousands of years. Because of human population growth and development, many wilderness areas are threatened. The effects of human interaction with wilderness areas can be direct, such as a campfire or poaching. The effects can also be indirect, such as human contribution to climate change. A change in climate can limit native plant growth or lead to the growth of non-native species. Water or air pollution from a nearby development also may threaten wilderness areas. Nearby development may prevent animals from migrating. This not only reduces the number of animals in an area, but can often prevent the pollination of certain plants, further reducing biodiversity.

In order to protect wilderness, some governments limit peoples interaction with the area. They also limit the kinds of human activities inside a wilderness area, placing restrictions on mining, logging, or even traveling by car.

There are two different ways to manage a wilderness area. The first is conservation, which encourages sustainable use of natural resources. Many wilderness areas have limited access to logging, for instance. This could mean a timber company can cut down a small number of trees each year if they replace the trees with saplings (young trees). It could also mean opening up the wilderness area to individuals for chopping down Christmas trees.

The other type of wilderness management is preservation, which encourages people to preserve the wilderness by not using natural resources.

The United States government recognizes 756 different wilderness areas in all 50 states. The largest is the Wrangell-Saint Elias Wilderness in Alaska, which is 36,740 square-kilometers (9,076,675 acres). The smallest is the Rocks and Island Wilderness in Northern California, which is .02 square-kilometers (5 acres).

Vocabulary

Term Part of Speech Definition Encyclopedic Entry

biodiversity

Noun

all the different kinds of living organisms within a given area.

Encyclopedic Entry: biodiversity

biologically intact

Adjective

region that has a healthy amount of natural biodiversity.

climate change

Noun

gradual changes in all the interconnected weather elements on our planet.

Encyclopedic Entry: climate change

conservation

Noun

management of a natural resource to prevent exploitation, destruction, or neglect.

Encyclopedic Entry: conservation

densely

Adverb

heavily or crowded.

ecosystem

Noun

community and interactions of living and nonliving things in an area.

Encyclopedic Entry: ecosystem

endanger

Verb

to put at risk.

Henry David Thoreau

Noun

(1817-1862) American writer and philosopher.

legally protected

Adjective

having laws to keep something safe.

logging

Noun

industry engaged in cutting down trees and moving the wood to sawmills.

migrate

Verb

to move from one place or activity to another.

mining

Noun

process of extracting ore from the Earth.

non-native species

Noun

a type of plant or animal that is not indigenous to a particular area. Non-native species can sometimes cause economic or environmental harm as an invasive species.

philosopher

Noun

person who studies knowledge and the way people use it.

poach

Verb

to hunt, trap, or fish illegally.

pollination

Noun

transfer of pollen from the male part of a plant to the female part of a plant.

pollution

Noun

introduction of harmful materials into the environment.

Encyclopedic Entry: pollution

preservation

Noun

protection from use.

pristine

Adjective

pure or unpolluted.

Ralph Waldo Emerson

Noun

(1803-1882) American poet.

sapling

Noun

young tree.

sustainable use

Noun

use of resources in such a manner that they will never be exhausted.

timber company

Noun

business that harvests trees for wood, paper, or other use.

urban

Adjective

having to do with city life.

Walden

Noun

(1854) book by Henry David Thoreau about his two years living alone at Walden Pond, Massachusetts.

wilderness

Noun

environment that has remained essentially undisturbed by human activity.

Encyclopedic Entry: wilderness

Credits

Media Credits

The audio, illustrations, photos, and videos are credited beneath the media asset, except for promotional images, which generally link to another page that contains the media credit. The Rights Holder for media is the person or group credited.

Writers

Kim Rutledge
Melissa McDaniel
Diane Boudreau
Tara Ramroop
Santani Teng
Erin Sprout
Hilary Costa
Hilary Hall
Jeff Hunt

Illustrators

Tim Gunther
Mary Crooks, National Geographic Society

Editors

Kara West
Jeannie Evers

Educator Reviewer

Nancy Wynne

Producer

Caryl-Sue, National Geographic Society

Sources

Dunn, Margery G. (Editor). (1989, 1993). "Exploring Your World: The Adventure of Geography." Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society.

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