• village
    Gandhi said the "soul of India" was its rural villages, like this one.

    Photograph by Dipanjan Mitra, MyShot

    Soul of India
    The Indian political and spiritual leader Mahatma Gandhi declared that the soul of India lives in its villages. In 2011, 69% of India's 1.24 billion people lived in rural villages.

    A village is a small settlement usually found in a rural setting. It is generally larger than a "hamlet" but smaller than a "town". Some geographers specifically define a village as having between 500 and 2,500 inhabitants. 
     
    In most parts of the world, villages are settlements of people clustered around a central point. A central point is most often a church, marketplace, or public space. A public space can be a open space (sometimes called a village green), or developed square (sometimes called a plaza or piazza). This type of village organization is called a nucleated settlement
     
    Some villages are linear settlements. They are not clustered around a central public space, but around a line. This line can be natural, such as a river bank or seashore. (Fishing villages are often linear settlements.) Linear settlements can also develop around a transportation route, such as a railroad line.
     
    Planned villages are communities that do not develop around a central point. They are outlined by city planners, often to avoid land-use conflicts that are common in nucleated settlements. 
     
    Planned villages are sometimes called "new towns." Tapiola, Finland, for instance, was planned as an "ecological village" or "garden city" in the 1950s. The nonprofit organizations that planned Tapiola were guided by the principles of providing local jobs, including all income levels, and establishing life in harmony with nature and the natural world.
     
    Villages often function as units of local government. In China and Japan, a village is an official administrative unit. An administrative unit is a single component of government, with its own leadership (similar to city councils) and services, such as mail delivery.
     
    Villages in the Past
     
    In the past, rural villagers usually engaged in a primary activity such as farming or fishing. In the United Kingdom, a "pit village" is a settlement whose primary activity is mining. In many underdeveloped nations, these primary activities are still the focus of rural village life. 
     
    Primary activities provide basic goods and services for inhabitants and for people in surrounding areas. In this way, some villages function as trading centers. Villages surrounding the city of Damascus, Syria, for example, have been trading hubs for thousands of years.
     
    Many villages were surrounded by thick walls or gates. A tulou, for example, is a traditional building among the Hakka people of Southern China. These walled, circular buildings are constructed around a large, open, central courtyard. The tulou itself houses most villagers—up to 800.
     
    The Industrial Revolution of the late 18th and early 19th centuries forever changed village life. The Industrial Revolution, defined as transition from animal-based labor to machines that manufacture goods, vastly increased productivity. As this happened, countless small villages grew into cities and towns. 
     
    In this process, called urbanization, nucleated settlements built up around around factories, not churches or community centers. This trend began on the island of Great Britain and eventually spread around the world. Hampstead was a English village that expanded rapidly after rail lines opened in the 1860s, for example. Today, Hampstead is a major neighborhood of London.
     
    Village Life Today
     
    Agricultural villages remain the predominant form of rural settlement throughout most of the world. (In much of North America and Australia, however, the most common form of rural settlement is the isolated farmstead.)
     
    Most villages in developed countries are no longer oriented toward primary activities. Cultural changes, globalization, and other factors have encouraged residents to seek other occupations, or, in some cases, to migrate. Perhaps the most radical change in village life came to Russia during the Soviet period. In the 1920s, Russia was an agricultural nation, with more than 75 million people living in villages. Russia quickly became an industrial nation, with the government supporting a manufacturing-based economy that was mostly located in cities. By the end of the Soviet Union in 1989, fewer than 40 million Russians lived in villages.
     
    Some urban residents moved to villages and commute to jobs in larger cities and towns. This phenomenon is referred to as "urban flight" or "suburban colonization." Villages or suburbs not only grow larger, but gain political power. Conflict between village or suburban residents and inner-city residents over resources and priorities often define political debates in urban areas such as Delhi, India, or Mexico City, Mexico.
     
    The word “village” is sometimes used to refer to certain neighborhoods within a larger urban area. Greenwich Village in New York City, for instance, has enjoyed a reputation as an artistic enclave for more than a century. Today, "the Village" is an upper middle-class residential area.
  • Term Part of Speech Definition Encyclopedic Entry
    bank Noun

    a slope of land adjoining a body of water, or a large elevated area of the sea floor.

    church Noun

    building used for spiritual worship and religious practices.

    city Noun

    large settlement with a high population density.

    city planner Noun

    person who plans the physical design and zoning of an urban center.

    commute Verb

    to travel to and from specific places on a regular basis, usually for a specific purpose, such as employment.

    conflict Noun

    a disagreement or fight, usually over ideas or procedures.

    develop Verb

    to expand or grow.

    economy Noun

    system of production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

    factory Noun

    one or more buildings used for the manufacture of a product.

    farming Noun

    the art, science, and business of cultivating the land for growing crops.

    geographer Noun

    person who studies places and the relationships between people and their environments.

    globalization Noun

    connection of different parts of the world resulting in the expansion of international cultural, economic, and political activities.

    Encyclopedic Entry: globalization
    government Noun

    system or order of a nation, state, or other political unit.

    hamlet Noun

    very small village.

    Industrial Revolution Noun

    change in economic and social activities, beginning in the 18th century, brought by the replacement of hand tools with machinery and mass production.

    isolated farmstead Noun

    single farm, consisting of one or several houses and farm buildings not associated with a settlement.

    linear settlement Noun

    settlement of people clustered along a line, such as a river bank or railroad route.

    manufacture Verb

    to make or produce a good, usually for sale.

    market Noun

    central place for the sale of goods.

    migrate Verb

    to move from one place or activity to another.

    mining Noun

    process of extracting ore from the Earth.

    neighborhood Noun

    an area within a larger city or town where people live and interact with one another.

    Encyclopedic Entry: neighborhood
    nonprofit organization Noun

    business that uses surplus funds to pursue its goals, not to make money.

    nucleated settlement Noun

    settlements of people clustered around a central point.

    phenomenon Noun

    an unusual act or occurrence.

    predominant Adjective

    leading or most influential.

    primary activity Noun

    work that provides basic goods and services, such as food, shelter, and clothing.

    principle Noun

    rule or standard.

    productivity Noun

    rate at which goods and services are produced.

    resource Noun

    available supply of materials, goods, or services. Resources can be natural or human.

    rural Adjective

    having to do with country life, or areas with few residents.

    seashore Noun

    beach or coast.

    settlement Noun

    community or village.

    Soviet Adjective

    having to do with the Soviet Union and the areas it influenced.

    town Noun

    human settlement larger than a village and smaller than a city.

    trading center Noun

    settlement or business area where goods and services are exchanged.

    transportation Noun

    movement of people or goods from one place to another.

    underdeveloped country Noun

    country that has fallen behind on goals of industrialization, infrastructure, and income.

    urban flight Noun

    process where city residents move to villages or suburbs and commute to jobs in larger towns.

    urbanization Noun

    process in which there is an increase in the number of people living and working in a city or metropolitan area.

    village Noun

    small human settlement usually found in a rural setting.

    Encyclopedic Entry: village
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