• renewable energy
    This building uses wind turbines, solar panels, and geothermal heat pumps.

    Photograph by Lauren Ayres, My Shot

    Renewable Nations
    These nations (or groups of nations) produce the most energy using renewable resources. Many of them are also the leading producers of nonrenewable energy:
    • China
    • European Union
    • United States
    • Brazil
    • Canada
    The wind, the sun, and Earth are sources of renewable energy. These energy sources naturally renew, or replenish themselves. 
     
    Wind, sunlight, and the Earth have energy that transforms in ways we can see and feel. We can see and feel evidence of the transfer of energy from the sun to the Earth in the sunlight shining on the ground and the warmth we feel when sunlight shines on our skin. We can see and feel evidence of the transfer of energy in wind’s ability to pull kites higher into the sky and shake the leaves on trees. We can see and feel evidence of the transfer of energy in the geothermal energy of steam vents and geysers.
     
    People have created different ways to capture the energy from these renewable sources.
     
    Solar Energy
     
    Solar energy can be captured “actively” or “passively.”
     
    Active solar energy uses special technology to capture the sun’s rays. The two main types of equipment are photovoltaic cells (also called PV cells or solar cells) and mirrors that focus sunlight in a specific spot. These active solar technologies use sunlight to generate electricity, which we use to power lights, heating systems, computers and televisions.
     
    Passive solar energy does not use any equipment. Instead, it gets energy from the way sunlight naturally changes throughout the day. For example, people can build houses so their windows face the path of the sun. This means the house will get more heat from the sun. It will take less energy from other sources to heat the house.
     
    Other examples of passive solar technology are green roofs, cool roofs, and radiant barriers. Green roofs are completely covered with plants. Plants can get rid of pollutants in rainwater and air. They help make the local environment cleaner. 
     
    Cool roofs are painted white. Radiant barriers are made of a reflective covering, such as aluminum. They both reflect the sun’s heat instead of absorbing it. All these types of roofs help lower the amount of energy needed to cool the building.
     
    Advantages and Disadvantages
    There are many advantages to using solar energy. PV cells last for a long time, about 20 years.
     
    However, there are reasons why solar power cannot be used as the only power source in a community. It can be expensive to install PV cells or build a building using passive solar technology.
     
    Sunshine can also be hard to predict. It can be blocked by clouds, and the sun doesn’t shine at night.  Different parts of Earth receive different amounts of sunlight based on location, the time of year, and the time of day.
     
    Wind Energy
     
    People have been harnessing the wind’s energy for a long, long time. Five thousand years ago, ancient Egyptians made boats powered by the wind. In 200 BCE, people used windmills to grind grain in the Middle East and pump water in China.
     
    Today, we capture the wind’s energy with wind turbines. A turbine is similar to a windmill; it has a very tall tower with two or three propeller-like blades at the top. These blades are turned by the wind. The blades turn a generator (located inside the tower), which creates electricity.
     
    Groups of wind turbines are known as wind farms. Wind farms can be found near farmland, in narrow mountain passes, and even in the ocean, where there are steadier and stronger winds. Wind turbines anchored in the ocean are called “offshore wind farms.”
     
    Wind farms create electricity for nearby homes, schools, and other buildings.
     
    Advantages and Disadvantages
    Wind energy can be very efficient. In places like the Midwest and along coasts, steady winds can provide cheap, reliable electricity.
     
    Another great advantage of wind power is that it is a “clean” form of energy. Wind turbines do not burn fuel or emit any pollutants into the air.
     
    Wind is not always a steady source of energy, however. Wind speed changes constantly, depending on the time of day, weather, and geographic location. Currently, it cannot be used to provide electricity for all our power needs.
     
    Wind turbines can be also dangerous for bats and birds. These animals cannot always judge how fast the blades are moving and crash into them.
     
    Geothermal Energy
     
    Deep beneath the surface of the Earth is the Earth’s core. The center of the Earth is extremely hot—thought to be over 5,000 °C (about 9,000 °F). The heat is constantly moving toward the surface.
     
    We can see some of the Earth’s heat when it bubbles to the surface. Geothermal energy can melt underground rocks into magma and cause the magma to bubble to the surface as lava. Geothermal energy can also heat underground sources of water and force it to spew out from the surface. This stream of water is called a geyser. 
     
    However, most of the Earth’s heat stays underground and makes its way out very, very slowly.
     
    We can access underground geothermal heat in different ways. One way of using geothermal energy is with “geothermal heat pumps.” A pipe of water loops between a building and holes dug deep underground. The water is warmed by the geothermal energy underground and brings the warmth aboveground to the building. Geothermal heat pumps can be used to heat houses, sidewalks, and even parking lots.
     
    Another way to use geothermal energy is with steam. In some areas of the world, there is underground steam that naturally rises to the surface. The steam can be piped straight to a power plant. However, in other parts of the world, the ground is dry. Water must be injected underground to create steam. When the steam comes to the surface, it is used to turn a generator and create electricity.
     
    In Iceland, there are large reservoirs of underground water. Almost 90% of people in Iceland use geothermal as an energy source to heat their homes and businesses.
     
    Advantages and Disadvantages
    An advantage of geothermal energy is that it is clean. It does not require any fuel or emit any harmful pollutants into the air. 
     
    A disadvantage of using geothermal energy is that in areas of the world where there is only dry heat underground, large quantities of freshwater are used to make steam. There may not be a lot of freshwater. People need water for drinking, cooking, and bathing. 
     
    Biomass Energy
     
    Biomass is any material that comes from plants or microorganisms that were recently living. Plants create energy from the sun through photosynthesis. This energy is stored in the plants even after they die.
     
    Trees, branches, scraps of bark, and recycled paper are common sources of biomass energy. Manure, garbage, and crops such as corn, soy, and sugar cane can also be used as biomass feedstocks.
     
    We get energy from biomass by burning it. Wood chips, manure, and garbage are dried out and compressed into squares called “briquettes.” These briquettes are so dry that they do not absorb water. They can be stored and burned to create heat or generate electricity.
     
    Biomass can also be converted into biofuel. Biofuels are mixed with regular gasoline and can be used to power cars and trucks. Biofuels release less harmful pollutants than pure gasoline.
     
    Advantages and Disadvantages
    A major advantage of biomass is that it can be stored and used when it is needed.
     
    Growing crops for biofuels, however, requires large amounts of land and pesticides. Land could be used for food instead of biofuels. Some pesticides could pollute the air and water.
     
    Biomass energy can also be a non-renewable energy source. Biomass energy relies on biomass feedstocks—plants that are processed and burned to create electricity. Biomass feedstocks can include crops such as corn or soy, as well as wood. If people do not replant biomass feedstocks as fast as they use them, biomass energy becomes a non-renewable energy source.
     
    Hydroelectric Energy
     
    Hydroelectric energy is made by flowing water. Most hydroelectric power plants are located on large dams, which control the flow of a river.
     
    Dams block the river and create an artificial lake, or reservoir. A controlled amount of water is forced through tunnels in the dam. As water flows through the tunnels, it turns huge turbines and generates electricity.
     
    Advantages and Disadvantages
    Hydroelectric energy is fairly inexpensive to harness. Dams do not need to be complex, and the resources to build them are not difficult to obtain. Rivers flow all over the world, so the energy source is available to millions of people.
     
    Hydroelectric energy is also fairly reliable. Engineers control the flow of water through the dam, so the flow does not depend on the weather (the way solar and wind energies do).
     
    However, hydroelectric power plants are damaging to the environment. When a river is dammed, it creates a large lake behind the dam. This lake (sometimes called a reservoir) drowns the original river habitat deep underwater. Sometimes, people build dams that can drown entire towns underwater. The people who live in the town or village must move to a new area. 
     
    Hydroelectric power plants don’t work for a very long time: Some can only supply power for 20 or 30 years. Silt, or dirt from a riverbed, builds up behind the dam and slows the flow of water.
     
    Other Renewable Energy Sources
     
    Scientists and engineers are constantly working to harness other renewable energy sources. Three of the most promising are tidal energy, wave energy, and algal (or algae) fuel.
     
    Tidal energy harnesses the power of ocean tides to generate electricity. Some tidal energy projects use the moving tides to turn the blades of a turbine. Other projects use small dams to continually fill reservoirs at high tide and slowly release the water (and turn turbines) at low tide.
     
    Wave energy harnesses waves from the ocean, lakes, or rivers. Some wave energy projects use the same equipment that tidal energy projects do—dams and standing turbines. Other wave energy projects float directly on waves. The water’s constant movement over and through these floating pieces of equipment turns turbines and creates electricity.
     
    Algal fuel is a type of biomass energy that uses the unique chemicals in seaweed to create a clean and renewable biofuel. Algal fuel does not need the acres of cropland that other biofuel feedstocks do.
     
  • Term Part of Speech Definition Encyclopedic Entry
    active solar energy Noun

    energy from the sun that is increased by the use of electricity or other mechanical equipment.

    biofuel Noun

    energy source derived directly from organic matter, such as plants.

    biomass Noun

    living organisms, and the energy contained within them.

    biomass energy Noun

    renewable energy derived from living or recently living organisms, mostly plants.

    biomass feedstock Noun

    crop, residue, and other organic material that can be used to produce energy on an industrial scale.

    consistent Adjective

    maintaining a steady, reliable quality.

    core Noun

    the extremely hot center of Earth, another planet, or a star.

    Encyclopedic Entry: core
    crop Noun

    agricultural produce.

    Encyclopedic Entry: crop
    dam Noun

    structure built across a river or other waterway to control the flow of water.

    efficient Adjective

    performing a task with skill and minimal waste.

    electricity Noun

    set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and flow of electric charge.

    emit Verb

    to give off or send out.

    environment Noun

    conditions that surround and influence an organism or community.

    freshwater Noun

    water that is not salty.

    gasoline Noun

    liquid mixture made from oil and used to run many motor vehicles.

    generate Verb

    to create or begin.

    generator Noun

    machine that converts one type of energy to another, such as mechanical energy to electricity.

    geothermal energy Noun

    heat energy generated within the Earth.

    geothermal heat pump (GHP) Noun

    heating or cooling system that pipes water in a continuous loop from wells drilled into the Earth through the space being heated or cooled, and back again.

    geyser Noun

    natural hot spring that sometimes erupts with water or steam.

    Encyclopedic Entry: geyser
    green roof Noun

    top of a residential or industrial building that is wholly or partially covered in vegetation.

    hydroelectric energy Noun

    energy generated by moving water converted to electricity. Also known as hydroelectricity.

    Encyclopedic Entry: hydroelectric energy
    hygiene Noun

    science and methods of keeping clean and healthy.

    industry Noun

    activity that produces goods and services.

    lava Noun

    molten rock, or magma, that erupts from volcanoes or fissures in the Earth's surface.

    magma Noun

    molten, or partially melted, rock beneath the Earth's surface.

    Encyclopedic Entry: magma
    non-renewable energy Noun

    energy resources that are exhaustible relative to the human life span, such as gas, coal, or petroleum.

    offshore Adjective

    having to do with facilities or resources located underwater, usually miles from the coast.

    passive solar energy Noun

    power from the sun that requires no other energy or mechanical system.

    pesticide Noun

    natural or manufactured substance used to kill organisms that threaten agriculture or are undesirable. Pesticides can be fungicides (which kill harmful fungi), insecticides (which kill harmful insects), herbicides (which kill harmful plants), or rodenticides (which kill harmful rodents.)

    photosynthesis Noun

    process by which plants turn water, sunlight, and carbon dioxide into water, oxygen, and simple sugars.

    photovoltaic Adjective

    able to convert solar radiation to electrical energy.

    pollutant Noun

    chemical or other substance that harms a natural resource.

    radiant barrier Noun

    reflective area that prevents heat transfer.

    renewable energy Noun

    energy obtained from sources that are virtually inexhaustible and replenish naturally over small time scales relative to the human life span.

    replenish Verb

    to supply or refill.

    reservoir Noun

    natural or man-made lake.

    Encyclopedic Entry: reservoir
    runoff Noun

    overflow of fluid from a farm or industrial factory.

    Encyclopedic Entry: runoff
    seaweed Noun

    marine algae. Seaweed can be composed of brown, green, or red algae, as well as "blue-green algae," which is actually bacteria.

    silt Noun

    small sediment particles.

    Encyclopedic Entry: silt
    solar energy Noun

    radiation from the sun.

    Encyclopedic Entry: solar energy
    tidal energy Noun

    energy produced as ocean waters surge in and out with tides.

    Encyclopedic Entry: tidal energy
    tide Noun

    rise and fall of the ocean's waters, caused by the gravitational pull of the moon and sun.

    Encyclopedic Entry: tide
    wave energy Noun

    energy produced by ocean waves.

    weather Noun

    state of the atmosphere, including temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind, humidity, precipitation, and cloudiness.

    Encyclopedic Entry: weather
    wind farm Noun

    area with a large group of wind turbines, used to generate electric power.

    windmill Noun

    instrument that generates power from the force of wind rotating large blades.

    wind turbine Noun

    machine that produces energy using the motion of wind to turn blades.

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