• oil shale
    Oil shale is a lot like coal—they're both rocks that can be burned for energy.

    Photograph by Emory Kristof

    Shale-saurs
    Some carbonate-rich shale deposits are also dinosaur-rich rock formations. The Irati Formation, in the state of Parana, Brazil, is a thin deposit of carbonate-rich shale. It also contains many fossils of mesosaurs, a type of aquatic dinosaur.
    Silica Gems
    In addition to oil shales, silica from ancient organisms created rock formations that are rich in minerals such as quartz, chert, and opal.
    Oil shale is a type of sedimentary rock that is rich in kerogen. Kerogen is a part of rock that breaks down and releases hydrocarbons when heated. Hydrocarbons are substances made entirely of hydrogen and carbon. Petroleum and natural gas are probably the most familiar hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbons in oil shale can be used as an alternative to petroleum or natural gas.
     
    Like traditional petroleum, natural gas, and coal, oil shale and kerogen are fossil fuels. Fossil fuels developed from the remains of algae, spores, plants, pollen, and a variety of other organisms that lived millions of years ago in ancient lakes, seas, and wetlands. 
     
    When these organisms died and drifted to the seabed, they were buried under new layers of plants and sediment. They encountered intense pressure and heat, decomposed, and slowly transformed into the waxy substance known as kerogen. 
     
    There is not a consistent chemical composition of kerogen, because it has a variety of origins. Kerogen that formed from land plants (called humic kerogen) usually has a higher oxygen content than kerogen formed from plankton (called planktonic kerogen). However, all types of kerogen consist mainly of hydrocarbons; smaller amounts of sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen; and a variety of minerals.
     
    Oil shale can be thought of as a precursor to oil and natural gas. With more pressure and over more geological time, kerogen would heat to its “oil window” or “gas window” (the temperature at which it would release crude oil or natural gas).
     
    A sedimentary rock, oil shale is found all over the world, including China, Israel, and Russia. The United States, however, has the most shale resources.
     
    Spanning the U.S. states of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming, the Green River formation is an underground oil shale formation that contains as much as 1.8 trillion barrels of shale oil. Although not all of this can be extracted, it is more than three times the proven petroleum reserves of Saudi Arabia. 
     
    Oil Shale, Shale Oil, and Oil-Bearing Shale
    Oil shale, shale oil, and oil-bearing shale are three different substances. Oil shale is a sedimentary rock. As it reaches its oil window, oil shale releases a liquid known as shale oil. Oil shale is the rock from which shale oil is extracted.
     
    Shale oil is similar to petroleum, and can be refined into many different substances, including diesel fuel, gasoline, and liquid petroleum gas (LPG). Companies can also refine shale oil to produce other commercial products, such as ammonia and sulfur. The spent rock can be used in cement. 
     
    Oil-bearing shales are underground rock formations that contain trapped petroleum. The petroleum trapped within the rocks is known as “tight oil” and is difficult to extract. Companies extracting tight oil often use hydraulic fracturing (fracking), while companies extracting shale oil most often use heat.
     
    The Bakken formation, for example, is made of oil-bearing shale. It is a series of layered shale rocks with a petroleum reservoir trapped between the layers. The Bakken formation stretches from the province of Saskatchewan, Canada, through the U.S. states of Montana and North Dakota. Improved drilling technologies have allowed companies to extract oil from the Bakken formation, creating an economic boom in the region. 
     
    Classifying Oil Shales
     
    Oil shales are often classified by their depositional history and mineral content. A sedimentary rock’s depositional history is the history of the type of environment in which the rock developed. The depositional history of an oil shale includes the organisms and sediments that were deposited, as well as how those deposits interacted with pressure and heat. 
     
    The van Krevelen Diagram
    The van Krevelen Diagram is a method of classifying oil shales based on their depositional history. The diagram divides oil shales according to where they were deposited: in lakes (lacustrine), in the ocean (marine), or on land (terrestrial). 
     
    Oil shales from lacustrine environments formed mostly from algae living in freshwater, saltwater, or brackish water. Lamosite and torbanite are types of oil shales associated with lacustrine environments. Lamosite deposits make up some of the largest oil shale formations in the world. Torbanite deposits are found mainly in Scotland, Australia, Canada, and South Africa.
     
    Oil shales from marine environments formed mostly from deposits of algae and plankton. Kukersite, tasmanite, and marinite are types of marine shales. Kukersite is found in the Baltic Oil Shale Basin in Estonia and Russia. Tasmanite is named after the region in which it was discovered, the island of Tasmania, Australia. Marinite, the most abundant of all oil shales, is found in environments that once held wide, shallow seas. Although marinite is abundant, it is often a thin layer and not economically practical to extract. The largest marinite deposits in the world are in the United States, stretching from the states of Indiana and Ohio through Kentucky and Tennessee.
     
    Oil shales from terrestrial environments formed in shallow bogs and swamps with low amounts of oxygen. The deposits were mostly the waxy or corky stems of hardy plants. Cannel shale, also called cannel coal or “candle coal,” is probably the most familiar type of terrestrial oil shale. Cannel coal was used primarily as fuel for streetlights and other illumination in the 19th century.
     
    Classifying Oil Shales by Mineral Content
    Oil shales are classified in three main types based on their mineral content: carbonate-rich shale, siliceous shale, and cannel shale. 
     
    Carbonate-rich shale deposits have high amounts of carbonate minerals. Carbonate minerals are made of various forms of the carbonate ion (a unique compound of carbon and oxygen). Calcite, for instance, is a carbonate mineral common in carbonate-rich shales. Calcite is a primary component of many marine organisms. Calcite helps form the shells and hard exteriors of oysters, sea stars, and sand dollars. Plankton, red algae, and sponges are also important sources of calcite. 
     
    Siliceous shale is rich in the mineral silica, or silicon dioxide. Siliceous shale formed from organisms such as algae, sponges, and microoganisms called radiolarians. Algae have a cell wall made of silica, while sponges and radiolarians have skeletons or spicules made of silica. Siliceous oil shale is sometimes not as hard as carbonate-rich shale, and can more easily be mined.
     
    Cannel shale has terrestrial origins, and is often classified as coal. It is made up from the remains of resin, spores, and corky materials from woody plants. It can contain the minerals inertinite and vitrinite. Cannel shale is rich in hydrogen, and burns easily.
     
    Using Oil Shale
     
    People have been using oil shale for thousands of years. Ancient Mesopotamians used shale oil to pave roads and caulk ships. Ancient Mongolians dipped the tips of their arrows in shale oil during battles, sending flaming arrows at their enemies. In the Middle East, sticky shale oil was even a component of decorative mosaics. 
     
    The modern shale industry began in the 19th century. This industry used industrial processes to heat shale in order to extract oil. Shale oil was used for a variety of products, including paraffin wax
     
    European countries, and later the United States, began extracting oil shale and shale oil and burning them as sources of fuel. The first U.S. shale mining facilities were established in the Ohio River Valley in the states of Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, and Kentucky. 
     
    Extracting and processing shale oil is an expensive and difficult process. Coal, petroleum, and natural gas are less expensive to extract. Australia, Brazil, Switzerland, Sweden, Spain, and South Africa began mining oil shale in the 19th and 20th centuries, but they all stopped production by the 1960s. The U.S. ceased production in the early 1980s. 
     
    Many nations, including Estonia, China, and Brazil, continue to rely on oil shale for fuel. It is burned to generate electricity, is a component in chemical industries, and byproducts are used in cement production.
     
    Extracting Shale Oil
     
    Obtaining shale oil from oil shale involves heating kerogen in a process called pyrolysis. Pyrolysis is a form of heating without the use of oxygen. At about 60-160 degrees Celsius (140-320 degrees Fahrenheit), kerogen reaches its natural “oil window.” At 120-225 degrees Celsius (248-437 degrees Fahrenheit), kerogen reaches its natural “gas window.” For production of oil shale, the temperatures are much higher.
     
    Pyrolysis can either be done ex situ (above ground) or in situ (below ground). 
     
    Ex Situ
    During the ex situ process, oil shale is first extracted from the earth by surface or underground mining. The rock is crushed, and then retorted (heated) to release the shale oil. The shale oil is then refined of impurities, such as sulfur. 
     
    In Situ  
    In situ is a new, experimental method of extracting shale oil. 
     
    During the in situ process, oil shale is not mined or crushed. Instead, the rock is heated to its oil window while it is still underground.
     
    One technology used for in situ oil extraction is known as volumetric heating. In this process, the rock is heated directly with an electric current. The heating element is injected either directly in a horizontal well or into a fractured area of the rock, until the oil shale begins producing shale oil. The oil could then be pumped directly from underground.
     
    Combined Technologies
    Some methods are designed for both in situ and ex situ extraction. 
     
    The internal combustion process uses a combination of gas, steam and spent shale produced by ex situ processing. These compounds are burned for pyrolysis. The hot gas is continually cycled through the oil shale, pyrolyzing the rock and releasing oil. 
     
    Unfortunately, substances in the oil shale, such as sulfides, react with water to form toxic compounds that are harmful to the environment and to us. Sulfides can cause effects from eye irritation to suffocation. Water containing toxic substances is unusable, and expensive to decontaminate
     
    The process also produces heaps of ash. This ash can pollute ground, air, and water sources. 
     
    Another method that can be used either in situ or ex situ involves chemically reactive fluids. The fluids are injected directly into the retort zone (where the rock is being heated). High-pressure hydrogen is one of the most common chemically reactive fluids. It simultaneously heats the rock, removes sulfur, and upgrades the quality of the extracted oil. 
     
    Environmental Effects
     
    Mining for oil shale can have damaging effects on the environment. 
     
    When shale oil is combusted (heated), it releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas; it absorbs and retains heat in Earth’s atmosphere, a process called the “greenhouse effect.” The greenhouse effect is essential to life on Earth because it helps insulate Earth and keep it at a warm, livable temperature. 
     
    The greenhouse effect helps maintain Earth’s “carbon budget.” Carbon is constantly being exchanged between the ocean, the atmosphere, and the Earth itself. Carbon on the earth is contained in plants, soil, fossil fuels, and all living things—including us!
     
    The carbon in fossil fuels (including coal, petroleum, natural gas, and oil shale) has been sequestered, or stored, underground for millions of years. By removing this sequestered carbon from the earth and releasing it into the atmosphere, Earth’s carbon budget is put out of balance. Burning fossil fuels releases carbon into the atmosphere at a much quicker rate than the trees, water, and ground can reabsorb it. More carbon retains more heat in Earth’s atmosphere, and contributes to rising temperatures—global warming, the current period of climate change. Sometimes, climates can rise faster than organisms can adapt.
     
    Another environmental disadvantage to extracting shale oil is the enormous amounts of freshwater required. Water is necessary for drilling, mining, refining, and generating power. Some experts estimate that three litres (.8 gallon) of water are required to produce just one litre (.3 gallon) of shale oil. Some of this water is contaminated by toxic compounds, and is costly to decontaminate. 
     
    Mining can also contaminate groundwater. During in situ processing, toxic byproducts are left underground. They can leach into other sources of water, making them unsafe for drinking, hygiene, or development
     
    Oil Shale and the U.S.
     
    The United States has enormous proven deposits of oil shale. A source of oil in the United States would reduce the need for importing oil from other countries. This would put people to work and make the U.S. less dependent on foreign trade and fluctuating oil prices.
     
    However, not all of oil shale is recoverable. Oil shales’ distinct chemical compounds and depositional history directly affect their energy content. This determines whether they are economically worth recovering.
     
    For example, Australia’s oil shales are siliceous (silica-based). They have fewer impurities and are less complex than the carbonate-based oil shales in the Western United States, and thus cost less to extract and process. 
     
    Depositional history also matters: Oil shales that developed in wetlands or small lakes are very rich in energy. However, these formations are usually small. Larger lakes created larger shale formations, although these usually yield less oil. 
     
    The process of extracting shale oil is expensive, much more expensive than the process of extracting crude oil. Due to this expense, the use of shale oil in the U.S. has fluctuated depending on the price of crude oil. Companies have only mined for oil shale when the price of crude oil is high. Today, the price of oil is relatively high and extraction technology is becoming more efficient and less expensive. The possibility of mining oil shale has again become a possibility. 
     
    Communities, governments, oil companies, and environmental organizations must weigh the cost of extraction with the benefits of an oil resource.
     
  • Term Part of Speech Definition Encyclopedic Entry
    ash adjective, noun

    powdery residue that remains after a substance has burned.

    atmosphere Noun

    layers of gases surrounding a planet or other celestial body.

    Encyclopedic Entry: atmosphere
    Bakken formation Noun

    underground rock formation stretching across southern Saskatchewan, Canada, and the U.S. states of Montana and North Dakota.

    bog Noun

    wetland of soft ground made mostly of decaying plant matter.

    brackish water Noun

    salty water, usually a mixture of seawater and freshwater.

    byproduct Noun

    substance that is created by the production of another material.

    cannel shale Noun

    waxy hydrocarbon commonly burned in the 19th century for illumination. Also called cannel coal or candle coal.

    carbonate-rich shale Noun

    sedimentary rock (shale) rich in carbon-based minerals, such as calcite.

    carbon budget Noun

    total amount of carbon and carbon compounds in the Earth and Earth's atmosphere.

    caulk Noun

    substance used to seal a structure or fixture and make it airtight or watertight.

    classify Verb

    to identify or arrange by specific type or characteristic.

    climate change Noun

    gradual changes in all the interconnected weather elements on our planet.

    Encyclopedic Entry: climate change
    coal Noun

    dark, solid fossil fuel mined from the earth.

    component Noun

    part.

    current Noun

    steady, predictable flow of fluid within a larger body of that fluid.

    Encyclopedic Entry: current
    decontaminate Verb

    to remove harmful substances or materials.

    depositional history Noun

    environmental conditions (catalog of deposits) under which a sedimentary rock formed.

    development Noun

    construction or preparation of land for housing, industry, or agriculture.

    diesel noun, adjective

    liquid fuel (usually a type of petroleum) used to propel diesel engines. Also called diesel oil and diesel fuel.

    electricity Noun

    set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and flow of electric charge.

    expensive Adjective

    very costly.

    ex situ adjective, noun

    method of processing oil shale after the rock has been mined.

    extract Verb

    to pull out.

    fluctuate Verb

    to constantly change back and forth.

    fossil fuel Noun

    coal, oil, or natural gas. Fossil fuels formed from the remains of ancient plants and animals.

    fracking Noun

    process usually used to extract oil and natural gas in which fractures in the Earth's surface are opened and widened by injecting water, chemicals, and sand at high pressure. Also called hydraulic fracturing.

    gasoline Noun

    liquid mixture made from oil and used to run many motor vehicles.

    gas window Noun

    temperature at which kerogen releases natural gas.

    generate Verb

    to create or begin.

    greenhouse effect Noun

    phenomenon where gases allow sunlight to enter Earth's atmosphere but make it difficult for heat to escape.

    Encyclopedic Entry: greenhouse effect
    greenhouse gas Noun

    gas in the atmosphere, such as carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and ozone, that absorbs solar heat reflected by the surface of the Earth, warming the atmosphere.

    groundwater Noun

    water found in an aquifer.

    Encyclopedic Entry: groundwater
    hydrocarbon Noun

    chemical compound made entirely of the elements hydrogen and carbon.

    hygiene Noun

    science and methods of keeping clean and healthy.

    industrial Adjective

    having to do with factories or mechanical production.

    in situ adjective, noun

    method of processing oil shale while it is still underground.

    insulate Verb

    to cover with material to prevent the escape of energy (such as heat) or sound.

    internal combustion adjective, noun

    having to do with fuel burning (combusting) inside a cylinder.

    ion Noun

    electrically charged atom or group of atoms, formed by the atom having gained or lost an electron.

    kerogen Noun

    type of rock that, when heated, breaks down into hydrocarbons such as petroleum or natural gas.

    lacustrine Adjective

    having to do with lakes.

    leach Verb

    to separate materials by running water or another liquid through them.

    LPG adjective, noun

    (liquid petroleum gas or liquified petroleum gas) gas produced as a byproduct of refining petroleum or natural gas and turned into a liquid by means of compression, often used as a heating fuel.

    marine Adjective

    having to do with the ocean.

    Mesopotamia Noun

    area between the Tigris and Euphrates River in Iraq.

    mineral Noun

    inorganic material that has a characteristic chemical composition and specific crystal structure.

    mining Noun

    process of extracting ore from the Earth.

    mosaic Noun

    picture or design made from many tiny pieces of colored glass.

    natural gas Noun

    type of fossil fuel made up mostly of the gas methane.

    Encyclopedic Entry: natural gas
    oil-bearing shale Noun

    rock (shale) formation with trapped reservoirs of petroleum.

    oil shale Noun

    sedimentary rock that contains hydrocarbons, which can be extracted by heating.

    paraffin wax Noun

    soft, malleable material made from petroleum and often used as a sealant or lubricant.

    petroleum Noun

    fossil fuel formed from the remains of ancient organisms. Also called crude oil.

    petroleum reservoir Noun

    pool of hydrocarbons (oil or gas) trapped between rock formations (strata). Also called an oil reservoir.

    plankton Plural Noun

    (singular: plankton) microscopic aquatic organisms.

    pollute Verb

    to introduce harmful materials into a natural environment.

    precursor Noun

    forerunner, or something that goes before.

    pyrolysis Noun

    process of heating biomass to very high temperatures with a limited amount of oxygen.

    retort Verb

    to heat an oil shale, often under reduced pressure, in order to produce a fuel (shale oil or shale gas).

    sediment Noun

    solid material transported and deposited by water, ice, and wind.

    Encyclopedic Entry: sediment
    sedimentary rock Noun

    rock formed from fragments of other rocks or the remains of plants or animals.

    sequester Verb

    to isolate or remove.

    shale oil Noun

    hydrocarbon extracted from oil shale. Also called oil-shale oil and kerogen oil.

    siliceous Adjective

    having to do with the mineral silicon dioxide (silica).

    spicule Noun

    small, spiny structure that supports the soft tissue of many marine organisms, such as sponges.

    swamp Noun

    land permanently saturated with water and sometimes covered with it.

    Encyclopedic Entry: swamp
    terrestrial Adjective

    having to do with the Earth or dry land.

    tight oil Noun

    petroleum trapped in often-impermeable rock formations.

    toxic Adjective

    poisonous.

    trade Noun

    buying, selling, or exchanging of goods and services.

    van Krevelen Diagram Noun

    graphs used to classify kerogen and petroleum, plotting a hydrocarbon's hydrogen-carbon ratio to its oxygen-carbon ratio.

    volumetric heating Noun

    method of extracting shale oil using an electric current to heat oil shale while it is still underground (in situ).

    wetland Noun

    area of land covered by shallow water or saturated by water.

    Encyclopedic Entry: wetland
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