• oceanography

    Oceanography, the final frontier.

    Photograph by David Doubilet

    Limnology
    Oceanography is the study of marine environments and their impact on the surrounding area. Limnology is the study of freshwater environments. Some limnologists, especially those who study large bodies of water such as the Great Lakes, must often be familiar with oceanography as well.

    Oceanographers Are In Demand
    According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, job opportunities for oceanographers and other geoscientists are expected to grow by 18 percent in the next decade. The need for energy, environmental protection, and responsible land and water management will drive the creation of oceanography jobs, mostly in government and the oil industry.

    Chart Error
    Nautical charts that Christopher Columbus used when he set off from Spain showed nothing but ocean between him and eastern China. That's why his discovery of the Americas was such a lucky, lucky surprise.

    After the Mutiny on the Bounty
    In 1789, some of the crew of the British ship Bounty mutinied (rebelled) against the ship's leader, Lt. William Bligh. Bligh and 18 crew members loyal to him were set adrift in the South Pacific Ocean, a little southeast of the island of Tonga. Bligh and his crew were sent off in a 7-meter-long (23-foot) boat with food and water to last a few days, plus four cutlasses (swords), a sextant, and a pocket watch. They had no compass or navigational charts.

    Bligh successfully navigated more than 6,500 kilometers (3,500 nautical miles) to the island of Timor in 47 days. Bligh's voyage to Timor is considered by many to be the most remarkable feat of navigation in history.

    Crossing the Line
    Sailors have elaborate rituals and celebrations when they cross the Equator, which they call crossing the line. Sailors who have never crossed the line are called pollywogs. Pollywogs are usually the target of embarrassing practical jokes.

    Oceanography is the study of all aspects of the ocean. Oceanography covers a wide range of topics, from marine life and ecosystems, to currents and waves, to the movement of sediments, to seafloor geology.

    The study of oceanography is interdisciplinary. The ocean’s properties and processes function together and cannot be examined separately from one another. The chemical composition of water, for example, influences what types of organisms live there. In turn, organisms provide sediments to the geology of the seafloor. Oceanographers must have a broad understanding of these relationships to research specific topics, or subdisciplines.

    Subdisciplines of Oceanography

    Oceanography’s diverse topics of study are generally categorized in four major subdisciplines. A subdiscipline is a specialized field of study within a broader subject or discipline. Oceanographers specialize in the biological, physical, geological, and chemical processes of the marine environment.

    Biological Oceanography
    Biological oceanographers study how each of the subdisciplines of oceanography work either separately or together to influence the distribution and abundance of marine plants and animals, as well as how marine organisms behave and develop in relation to their environment. Marine biologists and fisheries scientists are biological oceanographers.

    Biological oceanographers also focus on how species adapt to environmental changes, such as increased pollution, warming waters, and natural and artificial disturbances. A natural disturbance may be the eruption of an underwater volcano or a hurricane, while an artificial disturbance may be an oil spill or overfishing.

    The Cetacean Sanctuary Research Project is a marine biology program that focuses on whale and dolphin species (cetaceans) living in the Pelagos Sanctuary in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. A range of human activities threatens these species—intense maritime traffic, urban pollutants, and oil and gas exploration. By analyzing cetacean behavior in this high-pressure environment, oceanographers hope to protect Pelagos’ marine species and promote their importance to the surrounding coastal community.

    To get a clear picture of these species and their behavior, oceanographers monitor their geographic position, movements, and group size. They record vocalizations, respiration patterns, and surface and aerial displays to understand how cetaceans interact with one another and other marine species. Skin and fecal samples are analyzed to generate information on social, sexual, and feeding habits. The Cetacean Sanctuary Research Project has collected one the largest data sets on marine mammals in the Mediterranean Sea.

    New technology is expanding opportunities for biological oceanographers. Marine biotechnology is the study of how marine resources can be used to develop industrial, medical, and ecological products.

    Using a process called biomimicry, researchers are able to understand, isolate, and fabricate biological properties of marine species. Natural compounds found in corals and other marine organisms have potent anti-cancer properties. Proteins found in marine algae and bacteria are being developed into super-absorbent materials that could be used to clean oil spills. Salt-tolerant land crops have been created from genetically engineered marsh plants.

    The real-world applications of this research are potentially endless because marine species make up more than 80 percent of Earth’s living organisms.

    Physical Oceanography
    Physical oceanographers study the relationship between the ocean’s physical properties, the atmosphere, and the seafloor and coast. They investigate ocean temperature, density, waves, tides, and currents. They also focus on how the ocean interacts with Earth’s atmosphere to produce our weather and climate systems.

    Oceanographers in South Africa, for example, have studied the turbulent flow of water around the southern tip of Africa. This movement, known as the Agulhas Current, is part of a larger “ocean conveyor belt” that circulates water around the globe based on density, wind, and currents. Physical oceanographers have found that the amount of water flowing from the Indian Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean has increased, a process nicknamed the Agulhas leakage. The increased Agulhas leakage has been linked to global warming.

    Physical oceanographers predict that global warming will slow the ocean conveyor belt and radically change climate and weather patterns. As ice caps melt, sea levels rise and the ocean becomes less salty and dense. As ocean waters warm, they also expand, which enhances sea level rise.

    Geological Oceanography
    Geological oceanographers study the past and present composition of seafloor structures. They investigate the origins of the underwater landscape and detail its development and changes. They also focus on the physical and chemical properties of rocks and sediments found on the seafloor.

    A variety of geological research projects have been conducted on the JOIDES Resolution, an international research vessel. Resolution drills sediment-core samples and collects measurements from under the ocean floor. This research helps scientists understand our paleoclimate. Paleoclimatology is the study of weather and climate patterns over hundreds of millions of years. Changes in the seafloor reflect changes in Earth’s climate, and is very useful in predicting our future climate.

    Starting in December 2010, oceanographers and other scientists aboard the Resolution studied the Louisville Seamount Trail, a series of underwater volcanoes found in the South Pacific close to New Zealand. The vessel drilled sediment-cores at five different sites to understand the development of the hot spot that created these volcanoes. The results of this research will help define how landforms develop and change.

    Chemical Oceanography
    Chemical oceanographers study the chemical composition of seawater and its resulting effects on marine organisms, the atmosphere, and the seafloor. They map chemicals found in seawater to understand how ocean currents move water around the globe—the ocean conveyor belt. Chemical oceanographers study how the carbon from carbon dioxide is buried in the seafloor, highlighting the key role that the ocean plays in regulating greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, that is a major contributor to global warming. Chemical oceanographers also focus on how pollutants affect seawater composition. They may study the unusual and sometimes toxic fluids released by hydrothermal vents in the ocean floor.

    Ocean acidification is a key topic in chemical oceanography. The ocean is becoming more acidic because of the increased amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Acid disrupts the formation of calcium carbonate, the basic building block of shells and corals.

    Shellfish populations in the Pacific Northwest region of the U.S. have declined dramatically as a result of ocean acidification. Chemical oceanographers in Oregon help shellfish growers adjust their operations to reduce the influx of acidic water. They also run experiments to find the threshold at which shellfish are unharmed by acidification. This research will complement other studies that aim to reduce the negative impacts of ocean acidification in shellfish and coral environments around the globe.

    History of Oceanography

    Oceanography is deeply connected to the histories of exploration, colonization, trade, war, and scientific discovery.

    Considered the world’s first seafarers, Polynesians migrated from the western coastline of the Pacific Ocean about 30,000 years ago to colonize islands such as New Guinea, Fiji, Samoa, and Hawaii.

    Polynesians navigated the open ocean using their knowledge of astronomy (the positions of stars and planets) and ocean currents. They used these data to create the first oceanographic maps. Shells and knots represented the location of islands, and curved pieces of wood represented the direction and strength of surrounding waves and currents. These stick charts were passed down and improved from generation to generation over 25,000 years.

    Starting in the 1400s, European explorers used the sea to colonize new lands and establish efficient trade routes. Prince Henry of Portugal, nicknamed “Henry the Navigator,” created the first oceanographic institute where scholars and merchants learned about oceans, currents, and mapmaking.

    These new studies prompted the Age of Exploration, in which European navigators and explorers such as James Cook, Christopher Columbus, and Ferdinand Magellan launched expeditions around the world. Important oceanographic tools were created and improved upon during this period, including the mariner’s compass, astrolabe, and chronometer. By keeping accurate time on a moving ship, the chronometer allowed sailors to figure out their longitude—a massive advancement in maritime navigation.

    A book, Science of the Sea, published in 1912, summarizes the results of the Challenger expedition (1873-1876), which many claim as the beginning of modern oceanography. The scientific inferences made in this book are based on little or no data—and yet are nonetheless outstanding. For example, Science of the Sea contains a map of sediment-accumulation rates in the ocean. The relative rates were based on the number of sharks’ teeth in a unit volume of sediment. If there were lots of sharks’ teeth in a sediment sample, the sediment accumulation rate was recorded as very slow. If there were few sharks’ teeth, the sediment accumulation was recorded as very high. Based on these data, members of the Challenger expedition figured out the relative distribution of sediment accumulation in the ocean—perfectly! More than 140 years later, scientists can document these accumulation rates with much greater precision, but the overall trends are still the same.

    Military technology facilitated the study of our oceans. The use of submarines, starting in the American Civil War, prompted the development of sonar and the magnetometer. Sonar measures distance by timing sound waves as they leave and return to a ship after bouncing off surrounding objects. Sonar enables scientists to measure distances from the ocean surface to the seafloor more accurately and efficiently than the rope depth-soundings of the Challenger era. The magnetometer, originally developed to detect the metal hulls of submarines, is used by oceanographers to measure the magnetic properties of the seafloor. These measurements have enhanced our understanding of Earth’s magnetic core.

    Since the 1970s, sophisticated computer technologies have helped oceanographers measure ocean properties on a global scale. In 1978, NASA launched SEASAT, the first civilian oceanographic satellite. SEASAT’s sensors measured wind speed and direction, sea surface temperature, polar sea ice conditions, and surface waves. SEASAT also provided satellite imagery of cloud, land, and water features. Although it was operational for only 105 days, SEASAT collected as much oceanographic data as the previous 100 years of ship-based exploration. Another NASA satellite, TIROS-N, produced the first maps of sea-surface temperature and ocean chlorophyll, a green pigment necessary for photosynthesis.

    In the late 1970s, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) began mooring a series of buoys across the tropical Pacific Ocean. Known as the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean array, this collection of 70 buoys sends oceanographic and atmospheric data to shore in real time through a satellite system. This data has improved our ability to predict global climate processes such as El Nino.

    Oceanography Today

    Modern oceanographers have a variety of tools that help them discover, examine, and describe marine environments. TowCam, for example, is specially designed to handle the extreme conditions of the deep sea. TowCam is the first digital camera system designed to take high-quality imagery of the seafloor at depths of almost 6,100 meters (20,000 feet). It can also collect rock, lava, and water samples.

    Since its completion in 2002, TowCam has been used to study seafloor environments as diverse as the New England Seamounts, Galapagos Rift, Gulf of Mexico, and offshore Taiwan and Iceland. It has captured roughly 280,000 photographs and collected more than 300 samples of volcanic glass. Through these photographic and material samples, TowCam has facilitated the study of underwater geology and volcanology around the globe.

    Since its first dive in 1997, BIOMAPER has been used to study phytoplankton, zooplankton, and krill in the Gulf of Maine and the Southern Ocean around Antarctica. BIOMAPER uses five sonar units that transmit sound waves of different frequencies. These frequencies bounce off objects of different sizes and echo back to the research unit. BIOMAPER uses these echoes to calculate how large and how far away particles are. Unlike conventional nets, which can only sample areas up to 5 meters (16 feet), BIOMAPER can record data from 500 meters (1,640 feet) deep.

    BIOMAPER also measures water temperature, salinity, oxygen, chlorophyll, and light levels. These physical properties are important to the development of phytoplankton, zooplankton, and krill. This microscopic sea life makes up a large part of the diet of many marine animals. Plankton and krill are considered indicator species of the ocean’s overall vitality. By mapping and measuring the environment of this microscopic sea life, BIOMAPER helps oceanographers describe the habitats and health of the open ocean.

    JASON is a remote-controlled, deep-diving vessel that allows scientists to explore the seafloor efficiently. Unlike short, expensive dives in a submarine, JASON can be guided through underwater environments as deep as 6 kilometers (4 miles) for days on end.

    JASON uses a variety of instruments to record information and collect materials. Six color video cameras, one still camera, and sonar capture and map the seafloor. Two robotic manipulator arms allow scientists to collect samples of rocks, water, and sea life, and construct and maneuver other research instruments. Specially designed water containers are able to collect the extremely hot waters of hydrothermal vents and preserve the chemical composition of samples through their ascent to the surface.

    JASON’s technology has been used for a variety of research and educational purposes. It has investigated hydrothermal vents in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans. It has also explored many shipwrecks that were once out of reach for underwater archaeologists, extracting samples such as tools and pottery. As part of the JASON project, the vessel broadcasts images and reports to classrooms and over the Internet, allowing the public a rare glimpse into deep-sea environments.

  • Term Part of Speech Definition Encyclopedic Entry
    algae Plural Noun

    (singular: alga) diverse group of aquatic organisms, the largest of which are seaweeds.

    array Noun

    large group.

    astronomy Noun

    the study of space beyond Earth's atmosphere.

    atmosphere Noun

    layers of gases surrounding a planet or other celestial body.

    Encyclopedic Entry: atmosphere
    bacteria Plural Noun

    (singular: bacterium) single-celled organisms found in every ecosystem on Earth.

    basin Noun

    a dip or depression in the surface of the land or ocean floor.

    Encyclopedic Entry: basin
    bathymetric data Noun

    information on the depth of the ocean, lakes, or other bodies of water.

    biological oceanography Noun

    study of the life histories and population dynamics of marine organisms, and how they interact with their environment.

    biomimicry Noun

    process of using the natural world as a guide to develop new technology.

    buoy Noun

    floating object anchored to the bottom of a body of water. Buoys are often equipped with signals.

    Challenger expedition Noun

    (1872-1876) British scientific expedition conducted on HMS Challenger that helped establish the study of oceanography.

    chemical oceanography Noun

    study of the chemical reactions in the Earth's oceans, and how they interact with living and non-living materials and the atmosphere.

    chlorophyll Noun

    plants' green pigment that is essential to photosynthesis.

    chronometer Noun

    timepiece designed to be accurate in extreme conditions of wind, water, and pressure.

    circulate Verb

    to move around, often in a pattern.

    climate Noun

    all weather conditions for a given location over a period of time.

    Encyclopedic Entry: climate
    colonization Noun

    spreading of a species into a new habitat or ecosystem, and establishing a healthy population there.

    compass Noun

    instrument used to tell direction.

    Encyclopedic Entry: compass
    core sample Noun

    long, cylindrical section of the Earth displaying layers, usually obtained by using special drills.

    current Noun

    steady, predictable flow of fluid within a larger body of that fluid.

    Encyclopedic Entry: current
    data Plural Noun

    (singular: datum) information collected during a scientific study.

    density Noun

    number of things of one kind in a given area.

    Encyclopedic Entry: density
    digital Adjective

    having to do with numbers (or digits), often in a format used by computers.

    ecosystem Noun

    community and interactions of living and nonliving things in an area.

    Encyclopedic Entry: ecosystem
    El Nino Noun

    irregular, recurring weather system that features a warm, eastern-flowing ocean current in the eastern Pacific Ocean.

    Encyclopedic Entry: El Niño
    expedition Noun

    journey with a specific purpose, such as exploration.

    explorer Noun

    person who studies unknown areas.

    extract Verb

    to pull out.

    fabricate Verb

    to make or construct.

    fecal Adjective

    having to do with excrement.

    genetically engineered Adjective

    produced by humans modifying the genome of an organism.

    geological oceanography Noun

    study of underwater landscapes and the processes that created them.

    global warming Noun

    increase in the average temperature of the Earth's air and oceans.

    Encyclopedic Entry: global warming
    habitat Noun

    environment where an organism lives throughout the year or for shorter periods of time.

    Encyclopedic Entry: habitat
    hull Noun

    main body of a ship.

    hydrothermal Adjective

    related to hot water, especially water heated by the Earth's internal temperature.

    ice cap Noun

    area of fewer than 50,000 square kilometers (19,000 square miles) covered by ice.

    Encyclopedic Entry: ice cap
    indicator species Noun

    any species that determines a characteristic of its environment, such as range or ecological health.

    isolate Verb

    to set one thing or organism apart from others.

    magnetometer Noun

    scientific instrument used to measure the presence, strength, and direction of Earth's magnetic field.

    maneuver Noun

    a skillful movement.

    map Noun

    symbolic representation of selected characteristics of a place, usually drawn on a flat surface.

    Encyclopedic Entry: map
    marine biologist Noun

    scientist who studies ocean life.

    marine mammal Noun

    an animal that lives most of its life in the ocean but breathes air and gives birth to live young, such as whales and seals.

    maritime Adjective

    having to do with the ocean.

    marsh Noun

    wetland area usually covered by a shallow layer of seawater or freshwater.

    Encyclopedic Entry: marsh
    merchant Noun

    person who sells goods and services.

    microscopic Adjective

    very small.

    migrate Verb

    to move from one place or activity to another.

    military Noun

    armed forces.

    monitor Verb

    to observe and record behavior or data.

    navigator Noun

    person who charts a course or path.

    ocean Noun

    large body of salt water that covers most of the Earth.

    Encyclopedic Entry: ocean
    ocean acidification Noun

    decrease in the ocean's pH levels, caused primarily by increased carbon dioxide. Ocean acidification threatens corals and shellfish.

    ocean conveyor belt Noun

    system in which water moves between the cold depths and warm surface in oceans throughout the world. Also called thermohaline circulation.

    Encyclopedic Entry: ocean conveyor belt
    oceanography Noun

    study of the ocean.

    Encyclopedic Entry: oceanography
    oil rig Noun

    complex series of machinery and systems used to drill for oil on land.

    paleoclimatology Noun

    study of the atmosphere of prehistoric Earth.

    photosynthesis Noun

    process by which plants turn water, sunlight, and carbon dioxide into water, oxygen, and simple sugars.

    physical oceanography Noun

    study of water movement in the ocean.

    phytoplankton Noun

    microscopic organism that lives in the ocean and can produce its own food through photosynthesis.

    pollution Noun

    introduction of harmful materials into the environment.

    Encyclopedic Entry: pollution
    potent Adjective

    very powerful.

    protein Noun

    molecule necessary for all living organisms.

    respiration Noun

    breathing.

    rift Noun

    break in the Earth's crust created by it spreading or splitting apart.

    salinity Noun

    saltiness.

    satellite imagery Noun

    photographs of a planet taken by or from a satellite.

    sea level Noun

    base level for measuring elevations. Sea level is determined by measurements taken over a 19-year cycle.

    Encyclopedic Entry: sea level
    seamount Noun

    underwater mountain.

    sediment Noun

    solid material transported and deposited by water, ice, and wind.

    Encyclopedic Entry: sediment
    sonar Noun

    method of determining the presence and location of an object using sound waves (echolocation).

    sophisticated Adjective

    knowledgeable or complex.

    sound wave Noun

    wave of air pressure producing sound.

    stick chart Noun

    map made with sticks and shells, used by South Pacific islanders to navigate ocean swells, islands, and reefs.

    subdiscipline Noun

    field of study within a larger area of research.

    surface wave Noun

    seismic wave that travels across the surface of the Earth.

    tide Noun

    rise and fall of the ocean's waters, caused by the gravitational pull of the moon and sun.

    Encyclopedic Entry: tide
    trade route Noun

    path followed by merchants or explorers to exchange goods and services.

    turbulent Adjective

    violent or chaotic.

    vent Noun

    crack in the Earth's crust that spews hot gases and mineral-rich water.

    vent fluid Noun

    chemicals ejected by hydrothermal vents.

    vital Adjective

    necessary or very important.

    vocalization Noun

    sound or noise made by the vocal chords of an organism.

    volcanic glass Noun

    hard, brittle substance produced by lava cooling very quickly.

    volcano Noun

    an opening in the Earth's crust, through which lava, ash, and gases erupt, and also the cone built by eruptions.

    Encyclopedic Entry: volcano
    wave Noun

    moving swell on the surface of water.

    weather Noun

    state of the atmosphere, including temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind, humidity, precipitation, and cloudiness.

    Encyclopedic Entry: weather
    weather pattern Noun

    repeating or predictable changes in the Earth's atmosphere, such as winds, precipitation, and temperatures.

    wind Noun

    movement of air (from a high pressure zone to a low pressure zone) caused by the uneven heating of the Earth by the sun.

    zooplankton noun, plural noun

    microscopic organism that lives in the ocean.

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