• marsh
    Grasses dominate marshy ecosystems.

    Photograph by Patty Bodwell, My Shot

    Marsh Arabs
    The Madan, or Basra Marsh dwellers of southern Iraq, are thought by some historians to be descendants of the ancient Sumerian civilization. These so-called "Marsh Arabs" have lived for millennia by fishing and grazing buffalo in the lush delta of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Adapting to the ebb and flow of the tide, the marsh dwellers reside in floating reed houses and transport themselves in boats and canoes.

    Unfortunately, the marshes were reduced drastically during the presidency of Saddam Hussein. The number of Marsh Arabs in Iraq shrunk from about 400,000 to as few as 20,000. Today, the Madan find it difficult to maintain a livelihood as the polluted, drained, and saline waters of the marshes cannot support enough commercially viable wildlife.

    A marsh is a type of wetland, an area of land where water covers ground for long periods of time. Unlike swamps, which are dominated by trees, marshes are usually treeless and dominated by grasses and other herbaceous plants.

    Herbaceous plants have no woody stem above ground, and they grow and die back on a regular cycle. Herbaceous plants can be annuals (which grow anew every year), biennials (which take two years to complete their life cycle), or perennials (which take more than two years to complete their life cycle.)

    Marsh grasses and other herbaceous plants grow in the waterlogged but rich soil deposited by rivers. The plants roots bind to the muddy soil and slow the water flow, encouraging the spread of the marsh. These watery pastures are rich in biodiversity.

    There are three types of marshes: tidal salt marshes, tidal freshwater marshes, and inland freshwater marshes. Marshes are also common in deltas, where rivers empty into a larger body of water. Although all are waterlogged and dominated by herbaceous plants, they each have unique ecosystems.

    Tidal Marshes

    Both saltwater and freshwater tidal marshes serve many important functions: They buffer stormy seas, slow shoreline erosion, offer shelter and nesting sites for migratory water birds, and absorb excess nutrients that would lower oxygen levels in the sea and harm wildlife.

    The marshes along the Gulf Coast in the U.S., for instance, help protect communities in the states of Louisiana, Alabama, Texas, and Florida from hurricanes. Marshes cannot stop hurricanes, of course, but the wetland slows the progress of the storm and absorbs much of the surging water from the Gulf of Mexico.

    As marshes are drained for industrial and agricultural development, this layer of protection is diminished. Storm surges have no marshy "sponge" to absorb the water and wind of the hurricane, and coastal communities face greater threats.

    The fisheries of the Gulf Coast are also reduced as marshes are drained for development. The reduced habitat for fish decreases their population as more animals compete for fewer resources.

    Draining marshes also increases saltwater intrusion. Saltwater intrusion is the process where saltwater seeps into wetlands and even the water tables beneath them. This reduces the amount of freshwater for hygiene, drinking, industry, and irrigation. Saltwater intrusion also changes the chemistry of the tidal marsh, making it much more saline. Some species, such as cordgrass, can adapt to these changes. More delicate species are unable to adapt quickly and may become endangered.

    Finally, draining marshes increases the direct runoff flowing to the ocean. Marshes are able to absorb toxic chemicals that leach into waterways from pesticides used in agriculture, as well as industrial pollutants. Without the marshy sponge, runoff flows directly to the ocean, often creating coastal "dead zones" where there is little life below the water's surface. The frequent dead zones that regularly develop around the Chesapeake Bay and the Gulf of Mexico are not only the result of agricultural and industrial runoff, but a lack of marshland to combat such runoff.

    Tidal Salt Marshes
    Tidal salt marshes form a grassy fringe near river mouths, bays, and along coastlines protected from the open ocean. Ocean tides fill the marsh with salty water and cause the water level to rise and fall twice a day. The marsh is deeper at high tide and shallower at low tide.

    Plants such as sawgrass and pickleweed can tolerate fluctuating tidal waters, which are too salty for most trees and bushes.

    Like all marshes, tidal salt marshes are home to a wide variety of bird species. Small birds such as terns on fish, insects, and crustacean species found in the marsh. Ducks and cormorants are aquatic birds that rely on the grassy marsh for nesting sites as well as food such as fish, shrimp, and crabs. Even large raptors such as osprey are supported by tidal salt marshes.

    Commercially valuable fish and shellfish find food and shelter in salt marshes. The extensive tidal salt marshes along the coast of the U.S. state of Georgia, for instance, feature a large number of these species, including cordgrass (sometimes used as fodder for livestock), shrimp, and crab.

    Tidal Freshwater Marshes
    Tidal freshwater marshes lie farther inland than salt marshes, but are close enough to the coast to be affected by tidal fluctuations. Just like in salt marshes, the water level rises and falls twice every day, along with the tides.

    Tidal freshwater marshes, however, are fed by freshwater streams and do not have a large salt content. They are common boundaries between forests and rivers.

    Herbaceous plants called sedges dominate the tidal freshwater marsh ecosystem. Sedges include water chestnut and papyrus. Marshy papyrus is one of the most important plants in the development of civilization: Papyrus growing in the marshy delta of the Nile River was dried, treated, and used as an early form of paper by ancient Egyptians.

    The abundant insects of freshwater tidal marshes provide food for birds such as wrens and blackbirds. Water birds, such as ducks and herons, are also common in freshwater tidal marshes.

    Freshwater tidal marshes also provide spawning grounds for fish such as shad and herring. These fish are anadromous. Anadromous fish hatch in freshwater, but migrate and live most of their lives in the ocean. They return to freshwater rivers, streams, and marshes to spawn.

    Inland Marshes

    Inland freshwater marshes are found along the fringes of lakes and rivers where the water table, the upper surface of underground water, is very high. They vary in size from bowl-shaped depressions called prairie potholes to the vast, watery grasslands of the Florida Everglades.

    Vegetation in freshwater marshes depend on the presence of water. Wet meadows, for instance, do not have standing water for most of the year. They do not support aquatic plants. Plants establish seeds on a yearly basis, and only bloom with annual or biannual flooding of the meadow.

    Insects, especially butterflies, flourish in wet meadows. The ecosystem supported by these primary consumers include frogs, snakes, and even apex predators such as bears.

    Other freshwater marshes are much more aquatic. The Everglades, the largest freshwater marsh in the United States, are drowned in a shallow layer of water all year. In fact, the Everglades actually form a wide, slow-moving river draining out of Lake Okeechobee.

    The Everglades are rich in biodiversity. This so-called "River of Grass" supports such plants as sawgrass, cypress, and mangrove forests. They are home to animals such as ducks, geese, raccoons, turtles, and frogs. Predators such as alligators and panthers are also indigenous to the Everglades.

    The Okavango Delta in Botswana is probably the largest freshwater marsh in the world. The Okavango River empties into the Kalahari Desert, forming a delta in an arid region instead of near an ocean or lake. The Okavango Delta is a series of marshes totaling about 15,000 square kilometers (5,800 square miles).

    Okavango marshes are made up of dense beds of papyrus, water lilies, and underwater plants such as bladderworts. The Okavango Delta is a haven for a diverse number of animal species. Some animals live directly in and around the marshes, such as hippopotamuses and crocodiles. Other animals, such as giraffes and elephants, use the marshes as a source of freshwater in the middle of the dry Kalahari Desert.

    Marshes and People

    A number of human activities pose a threat to marsh ecosystems. Development along the Gulf Coast of the U.S. has reduced the marsh habitats in Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida. Massive development in south Florida has reduced the amount of water flowing through the Everglades. Wildlife such as the Florida panther are endangered because of the reduction of habitat.

    The marshes of Doana National Park, in Andalusia, Spain, have been greatly affected by human activity along the Guadalquivir and Guadiamar Rivers. The rivers waters have been drained and diverted to expand agricultural production, salt extraction, and tourist facilities. With less water feeding into their ecosystems, the marshes at Doana have been reduced from 150,000 hectares (370,600 acres) to only 30,000 hectares (74,100 acres).

    As a result, plant and animal species have diminished. The World Wildlife Fund and the Spanish government are now working to increase the water flow that enters the ecosystem. Their approach, like most marsh restoration programs, requires the cooperation of government officials, environmental regulators, agricultural producers, and the public.

  • Term Part of Speech Definition Encyclopedic Entry
    agricultural development Noun

    modern farming methods that include mechanical, chemical, engineering and technological methods. Also called industrial agriculture.

    anadromous Adjective

    characteristic of an animal that migrates from salt water to fresh water.

    apex predator Noun

    species at the top of the food chain, with no predators of its own. Also called an alpha predator or top predator.

    arid Adjective

    dry.

    bay Noun

    body of water partially surrounded by land, usually with a wide mouth to a larger body of water.

    Encyclopedic Entry: bay
    biodiversity Noun

    all the different kinds of living organisms within a given area.

    Encyclopedic Entry: biodiversity
    buffer Noun

    a cushion or shield.

    commercial Adjective

    having to do with the buying and selling of goods and services.

    crustacean Noun

    type of animal (an arthropod) with a hard shell and segmented body that usually lives in the water.

    dead zone Noun

    area of low oxygen in a body of water.

    Encyclopedic Entry: dead zone
    delta Noun

    the flat, low-lying plain that sometimes forms at the mouth of a river from deposits of sediments.

    Encyclopedic Entry: delta
    diminish Verb

    to become smaller or less important.

    ecosystem Noun

    community and interactions of living and nonliving things in an area.

    Encyclopedic Entry: ecosystem
    environmental regulator Noun

    person who manages the relationship between people, industry, and the natural world.

    erosion Noun

    act in which earth is worn away, often by water, wind, or ice.

    Encyclopedic Entry: erosion
    Everglades Noun

    vast swampy region flowing south of Lake Okeechobee in Florida.

    fluctuate Verb

    to constantly change back and forth.

    fodder Noun

    food for livestock consisting of whole plants.

    grassland Noun

    ecosystem with large, flat areas of grasses.

    habitat Noun

    environment where an organism lives throughout the year or for shorter periods of time.

    Encyclopedic Entry: habitat
    herbaceous plant Noun

    food that has been prepared according to Muslim dhabihah law.

    high tide Noun

    water level that has risen as a result of the moon's gravitational pull on the Earth.

    hurricane Noun

    tropical storm with wind speeds of at least 119 kilometers (74 miles) per hour. Hurricanes are the same thing as typhoons, but usually located in the Atlantic Ocean region.

    hygiene Noun

    science and methods of keeping clean and healthy.

    indigenous Adjective

    native to or characteristic of a specific place.

    industrial Adjective

    having to do with factories or mechanical production.

    inland freshwater marsh Noun

    wetland area covered in fresh water from a river, lake, or spring.

    irrigation Noun

    watering land, usually for agriculture, by artificial means.

    Encyclopedic Entry: irrigation
    leach Verb

    to separate materials by running water or another liquid through them.

    life cycle Noun

    process of changes undertaken by an organism or group of organisms over the course of their existence. Birth, growth, and death usually characterize the life cycle of animals.

    livestock noun, plural noun

    animals raised for sale and profit.

    marsh Noun

    wetland area usually covered by a shallow layer of seawater or freshwater.

    Encyclopedic Entry: marsh
    migratory Adjective

    organisms that travel from one place to another at predictable times of the year.

    mouth Noun

    place where a river empties its water. Usually rivers enter another body of water at their mouths.

    Encyclopedic Entry: mouth
    nutrient Noun

    substance an organism needs for energy, growth, and life.

    Encyclopedic Entry: nutrient
    pasture Noun

    type of agricultural land used for grazing livestock.

    pesticide Noun

    natural or manufactured substance used to kill organisms that threaten agriculture or are undesirable. Pesticides can be fungicides (which kill harmful fungi), insecticides (which kill harmful insects), herbicides (which kill harmful plants), or rodenticides (which kill harmful rodents.)

    pollutant Noun

    chemical or other substance that harms a natural resource.

    prairie pothole Noun

    small, shallow wetland.

    raptor Noun

    bird of prey, or carnivorous bird.

    reed Noun

    grass with tall, strong stalks that grows in marshy ecosystems.

    restoration Noun

    repair of damage to an ecosystem so that it can function as a normal self-regulating system.

    root Noun

    part of a plant that secures it in the soil, obtains water and nutrients, and often stores food made by leaves.

    runoff Noun

    overflow of fluid from a farm or industrial factory.

    Encyclopedic Entry: runoff
    saline Adjective

    salty.

    salt marsh Noun

    coastal wetland that is flooded with seawater, often by tides.

    sedge Noun

    grass-like plant native to wetlands.

    shellfish Noun

    any aquatic animal that has a shell.

    soil Noun

    top layer of the Earth's surface where plants can grow.

    spawn Verb

    to give birth to.

    storm surge Noun

    abnormal rise in sea level accompanying a hurricane or other intense storm. Also called a storm tide.

    Encyclopedic Entry: storm surge
    swamp Noun

    land permanently saturated with water and sometimes covered with it.

    Encyclopedic Entry: swamp
    threat Noun

    danger.

    tidal freshwater marsh Noun

    wetland area influenced by ocean tides but fed by freshwater streams.

    toxic Adjective

    poisonous.

    vegetation Noun

    all the plant life of a specific place.

    waterlogged Adjective

    flooded or overflowing with water.

    water table Noun

    underground area where the Earth's surface is saturated with water. Also called water level.

    Encyclopedic Entry: water table
    wetland Noun

    area of land covered by shallow water or saturated by water.

    Encyclopedic Entry: wetland
    wet meadow Noun

    wetland ecosystem that is saturated with water, but does not have standing water, for most of the year.

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