• landscape
    The natural landscape of the Pacific Ocean meets the man-made landscape of Honolulu, Hawaii.

    Photograph by Mark Makowski, MyShot

    Landscape Architecture
    Landscape architecture is the study of planning and altering features of a natural landscape. This often takes the form of public parks and gardens. Central Park, the enormous public park in New York City, is often cited as an ideal example of urban landscape architecture. Central Park was designed by American landscape architect Frederick Law Olmstead.

    A landscape is part of the Earths surface that can be viewed at one time from one place. It consists of the geographic features that mark, or are characteristic of, a particular area.

    The term comes from the Dutch word landschap, the name given to paintings of the countryside. Geographers have borrowed the word from artists. Although landscape paintings have existed since ancient Roman times (landscape frescoes are present in the ruins of Pompeii), they were reborn during the Renaissance in Northern Europe. Painters ignored people or scenes in landscape art, and made the land itself the subject of paintings. Famous Dutch landscape painters include Jacob van Ruisdael and Vincent van Gogh.

    An artist paints a landscape; a geographer studies it. Some geographers, such as Otto Schluter, actually define geography as landscape science. Schluter was the first scientist to write specifically of natural landscapes and cultural landscapes.

    A natural landscape is made up of a collection of landforms, such as mountains, hills, plains, and plateaus. Lakes, streams, soils (such as sand or clay), and natural vegetation are other features of natural landscapes. A desert landscape, for instance, usually indicates sandy soil and few deciduous trees. Even desert landscapes can vary: The hilly sand dunes of the Sahara Desert landscape are very different from the cactus-dotted landscape of the Mojave Desert of the American Southwest, for instance.

    Cultural Landscape

    A landscape that people have modified is called a cultural landscape. People and the plants they grow, the animals they care for, and the structures they build make up cultural landscapes. Such landscapes can vary greatly. They can be as different as a vast cattle ranch in Argentina or the urban landscape of Tokyo, Japan.

    Since 1992, the United Nations has recognized significant interactions between people and the natural landscape as official cultural landscapes. The international organization protects these sites from destruction, and identifies them as tourist destinations.

    The World Heritage Committee of UNESCO (the United Nations Economic, Social, and Cultural Organization) defines a cultural landscape in three ways.

    The first is a clearly defined landscape designed and created intentionally by man. The Archaeological Landscape of the First Coffee Plantations in the South-East of Cuba, near Santiago, Cuba, is an example of this type of cultural landscape.

    The second type of cultural landscape is an organically evolved landscape. An organically evolved landscape is one where the spiritual, economic, and cultural significance of an area developed along with its physical characteristics. The Orkhon Valley Cultural Landscape, along the banks of the Orkhon River in central Mongolia, is an example of an organically evolved landscape. The Orkhon Valley has been used by Mongolian nomads since the 8th century as pastureland for their horses and other animals. Mongolian herders still use the rich river valley for pastureland today.

    The last type of cultural landscape is an associative cultural landscape. An associative landscape is much like an organically evolved landscape, except physical evidence of historical human use of the site may be missing. Its significance is an association with spiritual, economic, or cultural features of a people. Tongariro National Park in New Zealand is an associative cultural landscape for the Maori people. The mountains in the park symbolize the link between the Maori and the physical environment.

    People and the Natural Landscape

    The growth of technology has increased our ability to change a natural landscape. An example of human impact on landscape can be seen along the coastline of the Netherlands. Water from the North Sea was pumped out of certain areas, uncovering the fertile soil below. Dikes and dams were built to keep water from these areas, now used for farming and other purposes.

    Dams can change a natural landscape by flooding it. The Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River, in Yichang, China, is the worlds largest electric power plant. The Three Gorges Dam project has displaced more than 1.2 million people and permanently altered the flow of the Yangtze River, changing both the physical and cultural landscape of the region.

    Many human activities increase the rate at which natural processes, such as weathering and erosion, shape the landscape. The cutting of forests exposes more soil to wind and water erosion. Pollution such as acid rain often speeds up the weathering, or breakdown, of the Earths rocky surface.

    By studying natural and cultural landscapes, geographers learn how peoples activities affect the land. Their studies may suggest ways that will help us protect the delicate balance of Earths ecosystems.

  • Term Part of Speech Definition Encyclopedic Entry
    acid rain Noun

    precipitation with high levels of nitric and sulfuric acids. Acid rain can be manmade or occur naturally.

    cactus Noun

    type of plant native to dry regions.

    cattle Noun

    cows and oxen.

    clay Noun

    type of sedimentary rock that is able to be shaped when wet.

    cultural landscape Noun

    human imprint on the physical environment.

    dam Noun

    structure built across a river or other waterway to control the flow of water.

    deciduous Adjective

    type of plant that sheds its leaves once a year.

    desert Noun

    area of land that receives no more than 25 centimeters (10 inches) of precipitation a year.

    Encyclopedic Entry: desert
    dike Noun

    a barrier, usually a natural or artificial wall used to regulate water levels.

    Encyclopedic Entry: dike
    displace Verb

    to remove or force to evacuate.

    ecosystem Noun

    community and interactions of living and nonliving things in an area.

    Encyclopedic Entry: ecosystem
    erosion Noun

    act in which earth is worn away, often by water, wind, or ice.

    Encyclopedic Entry: erosion
    farming Noun

    the art, science, and business of cultivating the land for growing crops.

    fertile Adjective

    able to produce crops or sustain agriculture.

    flood Noun

    overflow of a body of water onto land.

    Encyclopedic Entry: flood
    fresco Noun

    art or design painted directly into the wet plaster of a wall or other surface.

    geographer Noun

    person who studies places and the relationships between people and their environments.

    hill Noun

    land that rises above its surroundings and has a rounded summit, usually less than 300 meters (1,000 feet).

    Encyclopedic Entry: hill
    intentional Adjective

    deliberate or on-purpose.

    lake Noun

    body of water surrounded by land.

    landform Noun

    specific natural feature on the Earth's surface.

    Encyclopedic Entry: landform
    landscape Noun

    the geographic features of a region.

    Encyclopedic Entry: landscape
    landscape painting Noun

    painting depicting geographic features able to be viewed at one time from one place.

    Mojave Desert Noun

    arid landscape in the U.S. states of California, Arizona, Nevada, and Utah.

    mountain Noun

    landmass that forms as tectonic plates interact with each other.

    natural landscape Noun

    geographic features not created by humans that are characteristic of an area.

    nomad Noun

    person who moves from place to place, without a fixed home.

    Otto Schluter Noun

    (1872-1959) German geographer.

    pasture Noun

    type of agricultural land used for grazing livestock.

    plain Noun

    flat, smooth area at a low elevation.

    Encyclopedic Entry: plain
    plateau Noun

    large region that is higher than the surrounding area and relatively flat.

    Encyclopedic Entry: plateau
    pollution Noun

    introduction of harmful materials into the environment.

    Encyclopedic Entry: pollution
    Pompeii Noun

    city in southwest Italy that was buried by an eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 CE.

    power plant Noun

    industrial facility for the generation of electric energy.

    Renaissance Noun

    period of great development in science, art, and economy in Western Europe from the 14th to the 17th centuries.

    ruin Noun

    remains of a destroyed building or set of buildings.

    Sahara Desert Noun

    world's largest desert, in north Africa.

    sand Noun

    small, loose grains of disintegrated rocks.

    soil Noun

    top layer of the Earth's surface where plants can grow.

    stream Noun

    body of flowing fluid.

    symbolize Verb

    to represent an object, idea, organization, or geographical region.

    technology Noun

    the science of using tools and complex machines to make human life easier or more profitable.

    Three Gorges Dam Noun

    electrical power plant along the Yangtze River in China.

    UNESCO Noun

    the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization.

    Encyclopedic Entry: UNESCO
    United Nations Noun

    international organization that works for peace, security and cooperation.

    urban landscape Noun

    physical features of a city.

    vegetation Noun

    all the plant life of a specific place.

    Vincent van Gogh Noun

    (1853-1890) Dutch painter.

    weathering Noun

    the breaking down or dissolving of the Earth's surface rocks and minerals.

    Encyclopedic Entry: weathering
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