• herding

    People have been herding this rare breed of sheep (piebald or Jacob sheep) for thousands of years.

    Photograph by Dean Conger

    Thatll Do, Pig
    Unlike the fictional Babe, real pigs are not herding animals! The commands used in the movie, however, are realistic. Here are some more:

    • "by", "come by" or "go by"=move clockwise around the herd—by the clock
    • "way" or "away"=move counter-clockwise around the herd
    • "look back"=return for a lost or missed animal
    • "that'll do"=stop work and return to the herder

    Good Shepherds
    Herders are traditional symbols for many religious traditions.

    God, in the Jewish, Christian, and Muslim traditions, is referred to as the Good Shepherd. These religions grew out of herding culture in the Levant, where good shepherds were understood to keep their herds safe and unified.

    One of the avatars of Krishna, an important Hindu deity, is Govinda. Govinda is a cowherd, the traditional occupation of a young man. Govinda is one of the youngest incarnations of Krishna, associated with love and fertility.

    The Ox Herder is a traditional Zen Buddhist parable. In it, the path to spiritual enlightenment is compared to a herders search for his missing ox.

    Herd of Herds
    Not all groups of animals are herds. Here are the group names of some animals that are regularly herded.

    • a raft of ducks
    • a gaggle of geese
    • a flock of sheep
    • a mob of cattle (Australia)

    Herding is the practice of caring for roaming groups of livestock over a large area. Herding developed about 10,000 years ago, as prehistoric hunters domesticated wild animals such as sheep and goats. Hunters learned that by controlling animals they once pursued, they could have reliable sources of meat, milk and milk products, and hides for tents and clothing.

    Many animals naturally live and travel together in groups called herds. Goats, sheep, and llamas, for instance, live in herds as a form of protection. They move from one fertile grassland to another without an organized direction.

    Predators such as lions, wolves, and coyotes pose major risks to domestic herds. Herders have traditionally provided protection for the animals. Herders also keep the herd together and guide it toward the most fertile grassland.

    Herders often specialize in a particular type of livestock. Shepherds, for instance, herd and tend to flocks of sheep. Goatherds tend to goats, and swineherds to pigs and hogs.

    Herders who tend to cattle were once called cowherds. Most cowherds are now known as cowboys. In Australia and New Zealand, cowboys are called jackaroos and jillaroos. In Latin America, they are known as vaqueros.

    Herders often use herding dogs to help them tend their herd. Herding dogs have been bred to respond to the whistle or other commands of the herder. They keep a herd of sheep, goats, or cattle together. Herding dogs, such as kelpies and koolies, can also guide herds through dangerous terrain. Herding dogs are so skilled and efficient that they often participate in competitions. At these competitions, called trials, herding dogs move animals around an enclosure, through a series of fences and gates.

    Larger dogs are often used by herders as livestock guardian dogs. These dogs, such as Great Pyrenees, have been bred to protect herds, usually sheep and goats, from predators such as wolves and coyotes. In Africa, livestock guardian dogs such as Anatolians protect domestic herds from lions and cheetahs.

    Herding often takes place in transition zones, where land is not fertile enough for intensive farming. Animals can live on the forage of these grasslands, while people cannot.

    Nomadic Herding

    There are several different types of herding. One of the most ancient forms of herding is nomadic herding. Nomadic herders roam in small tribal or extended family groups and have no home base. Nomads live in arid and semiarid parts of Africa, Asia, and Europe, and in the tundra regions of Asia and Europe.

    In Africa, nomads herd cattle, goats, sheep, and camels. In the tundra, they usually herd domesticated reindeer. Other animals managed by nomadic herders include horses, musk-oxen, and yaks. For many nomads, their herds provide meat, milk, and hides for their own use, as well as for trade.

    Nomadic herding is sometimes considered a form of subsistence agriculture. It actually is not. Subsistence farmers grow and harvest crops mostly for their immediate family and community. Unlike subsistence farmers, herders are traditionally wage-earners: They sell their herds’ materials for goods and services, or herd other people’s animals for a fee. Often, this trade is part of the informal economy—not accounted for by the government of a region. In Africa, the United Nations estimates that herders are responsible for more than $100 million in economic activity every year.

    The Fulani people of Nigeria have long been nomadic herders. They move with their cattle from one grazing area to another. The cattle feed on scrub and grasses in land unsuitable for farming. The Fulani rely on cattle for milk, but rarely slaughter the animals for meat.

    Nomadic herding as a way of life is declining because of natural disasters such as droughts, loss of land area due to development and degradation, and pressure from governments to lead a settled existence.

    Semi-Nomadic Herding

    Semi-nomadic herders live a more settled life than nomads, but still follow their herds for long periods of time. Millions of Mongolians, for example, have been semi-nomadic herders for thousands of years. They traditionally herd sheep, goats, horses, and Bactrian camels. Today, about a quarter of Mongolia’s population continues to live a semi-nomadic herding lifestyle.

    Semi-nomadic herders can be associated with invasions. The Mongol leader Genghis Khan conquered almost all of Asia by uniting various nomadic and semi-nomadic tribes in the 1200s. Their familiarity with vast tracks of land, and living in sparse conditions for long periods of time, made these herders ideally suited to moving across varied terrain.

    The Sami are semi-nomadic herders indigenous to the Arctic. They live throughout northern Norway, Sweden, Finland, and on the Kola Peninsula of Russia. For centuries, the Sami have herded reindeer as a principal means of livelihood, supplemented by fishing and trapping.

    Development has made it difficult for semi-nomadic herders to sustain their traditional way of life. State and national borders, for example, have divided traditional Sami land. Industries like timber and mining have reduced grazing land. Today, some laws exist to protect the Sami and their rights to use the land, but conflicts still exist.

    Transhumance

    Another type of herding is called transhumance. Transhumance herders follow a seasonal migration pattern, usually moving to cool highlands in the summer and warmer lowlands in the winter. Unlike nomads, these herders move between the same two locations, where they have permanent settlements.

    Transhumance has had an enormous impact on the landscape. In the European Alps, for instance, thousands of years of transhumance have transformed foothill forests into alpine pastures. Swiss and German herders traditionally led sheep, cattle, and pigs to pastures at elevations above 2,000 meters (6,562 feet).

    Transhumance in the Alps actually involved three herding grounds. The village floor, at the lowest elevation, was where livestock were kept sheltered during the cold and snowy winter months. Shepherds led herds to the middle pastures during the spring. During the summer and fall, shepherds led sheep and cattle to the high alpine pastures, while pigs stayed in the middle area.

    Transhumance is still widely practiced throughout agricultural communities in Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Italy, and Slovenia.

    The Kirghiz horsemen of Central Asia used to migrate between regions of eastern Afghanistan, western China, and southern Tajikistan with their herds of goats, yaks, and camels. They would spend their winters in the lower valleys of China or Tajikistan, moving to high mountain grasslands in the summer.

    When China restricted its borders to travelers, the Kirghiz transhumance herders lost the ability to summer in Chinese mountain valleys. While some Kirghiz have settled into sedentary lives in other regions, a small group still upholds their traditional lifestyle in the remote, austere Wakhan Corridor of Afghanistan.

    Ranches

    Most large-scale livestock herds today live on ranches. Ranching involves raising livestock on a single, large tract of land. Ranches are common in Australia and New Zealand, the western United States, Argentina, and Brazil. Ranchers don’t migrate the way nomadic or transhumance herders do.

    However, throughout most of the 1800s, ranchers in the United States set their cattle and sheep loose to roam the prairie as herds. Most of the grazing land was owned by the government, not individual ranchers. This was the so-called “open range.” Twice a year, cowboys would round up cattle for branding (in spring) and for gathering for sale (in autumn). Round-ups are still a part of ranching culture, but livestock now roam on private land.

    Herding and Land Use

    Herders maintain complex maps of the area where their herds graze. These maps include seasonal weather patterns; partnerships or conflicts with other herders, ranchers, or landowners; and soil quality. Herders can be excellent resources for data about the agricultural fertility of an area.

    A herder’s vast knowledge is threatened by the pressure to conform to modern society. Permanent residence allows members of a community to have access to education and health care facilities. It also affords members a greater choice in their professional and personal lives.

    However, the complex social structure of herding communities is lost as they are absorbed into mainstream culture. Unique language and customs become outdated and not useful in settled urban or suburban life.

    The Bedouin people of the Arabian Peninsula and the Middle East, for example, are almost entirely semi-nomadic and settled. Prior to the 20th century, Bedouins were mostly nomads, herding sheep and goats. A series of droughts in the 1960s throughout Western Asia limited fertile areas. Oil production in Egypt and Saudi Arabia further limited land available for grazing.

    More importantly, however, Bedouins sought a better standard of living. Schools, health-care facilities, law enforcement, and social opportunities are usually greater in settled areas than through herding lifestyles.

  • Term Part of Speech Definition Encyclopedic Entry
    absorb Verb

    to soak up.

    alpine Adjective

    having to do with mountains.

    Arctic Noun

    region at Earth's extreme north, encompassed by the Arctic Circle.

    Encyclopedic Entry: Arctic
    arid Adjective

    dry.

    austere Adjective

    severe, simple, or lacking in luxury.

    barbed wire Noun

    twisted metal with sharpened points, often used for fences.

    Bedouin noun, adjective

    people and culture native to the Arabian Peninsula, Middle East, and North Africa.

    border Noun

    natural or artificial line separating two pieces of land.

    Encyclopedic Entry: border
    branding Noun

    marketing or sales process that creates a unique reputation for a product.

    breed Verb

    to produce offspring.

    cattle Noun

    cows and oxen.

    complex Adjective

    complicated.

    conform Verb

    to comply or act according to the accepted standard.

    conquer Verb

    to overcome an enemy or obstacle.

    cowboy Noun

    person who herds cattle on a ranch, usually on a horse.

    crop Noun

    agricultural produce.

    Encyclopedic Entry: crop
    custom Noun

    a way of doing things that has been handed down from one generation to the next.

    data Plural Noun

    (singular: datum) information collected during a scientific study.

    degradation Noun

    breaking down.

    development Noun

    construction or preparation of land for housing, industry, or agriculture.

    domesticate Verb

    to tame or adapt for human use.

    drought Noun

    period of greatly reduced precipitation.

    Encyclopedic Entry: drought
    economic Adjective

    having to do with money.

    education Noun

    process of acquiring knowledge and critical-thinking skills.

    efficient Adjective

    performing a task with skill and minimal waste.

    elevation Noun

    height above or below sea level.

    Encyclopedic Entry: elevation
    enclosure Noun

    area surrounded by a wall, fence, or other physical boundary.

    enormous Adjective

    very large.

    familiar Adjective

    well-known.

    farming Noun

    the art, science, and business of cultivating the land for growing crops.

    fee Noun

    price or cost.

    fertile Adjective

    able to produce crops or sustain agriculture.

    foothill Noun

    hill at the base of a mountain.

    forage Noun

    fodder, or food for horses or cattle.

    forest Noun

    ecosystem filled with trees and underbrush.

    Fulani noun, adjective

    nomadic herders of northern Nigeria. Also known as the Fula.

    Genghis Khan Noun

    (1162-1227) founder of the Mongol empire.

    goatherd Noun

    herder who tends to goats.

    government Noun

    system or order of a nation, state, or other political unit.

    grass Noun

    type of plant with narrow leaves.

    grassland Noun

    ecosystem with large, flat areas of grasses.

    harvest Noun

    the gathering and collection of crops, including both plants and animals.

    health care Noun

    system for addressing the physical health of a population.

    herd Noun

    group of animals.

    herder Noun

    person who controls and takes responsibility for a group of animals such as sheep, cattle, or horses.

    herding Noun

    practice of caring for roaming groups of livestock over a large area.

    Encyclopedic Entry: herding
    herding dog Noun

    dog bred to keep a herd of livestock safe and together.

    hide Noun

    leather skin of an animal.

    highlands Plural Noun

    plateau or elevated region of land.

    homestead Noun

    area of land including a dwelling and any outbuildings, such as barns.

    indigenous Adjective

    native to or characteristic of a specific place.

    informal economy Noun

    exchange of goods and services where taxes are not paid to the government, or services are illegal, such as drugs. Also called the black market.

    jackaroo Noun

    Australian cowboy.

    jillaroo Noun

    Australian cowgirl.

    landscape Noun

    the geographic features of a region.

    Encyclopedic Entry: landscape
    language Noun

    set of sounds, gestures, or symbols that allows people to communicate.

    Latin America Noun

    South America, Central America, the Caribbean, and Mexico.

    Levant Noun

    area bordering the eastern Mediterranean Sea, including the nations of Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, and Israel.

    livelihood Noun

    ability to economically support oneself.

    livestock noun, plural noun

    animals raised for sale and profit.

    livestock guardian dog Noun

    dog bred to protect livestock herds from predators.

    lowland Noun

    slow-flowing river ecosystem usually found in lower altitudes.

    map Noun

    symbolic representation of selected characteristics of a place, usually drawn on a flat surface.

    Encyclopedic Entry: map
    meat Noun

    animal flesh eaten as food.

    migrate Verb

    to move from one place or activity to another.

    migration pattern Noun

    predictable movements, in time and space, of a group of animals or people.

    milk Noun

    white liquid produced by female mammals to feed their young.

    mining Noun

    process of extracting ore from the Earth.

    natural disaster Noun

    an event occurring naturally that has large-scale effects on the environment and people, such as a volcano, earthquake, or hurricane.

    nomadic Adjective

    having to do with a way of life lacking permanent settlement.

    oil Noun

    fossil fuel formed from the remains of marine plants and animals. Also known as petroleum or crude oil.

    open range Noun

    large area owned by the government where many owners' livestock may graze, usually referring to the situation in the late 1800s in the western United States.

    outdated Adjective

    no longer useful.

    overgrazing Noun

    process of too many animals feeding on one area of pasture or grassland.

    pasture Noun

    type of agricultural land used for grazing livestock.

    prairie Noun

    large grassland; usually associated with the Mississippi River Valley in the United States.

    Encyclopedic Entry: prairie
    predator Noun

    animal that hunts other animals for food.

    prehistoric Adjective

    period of time that occurred before the invention of written records.

    principal Adjective

    leading or dominant.

    ranch Noun

    large farm on which livestock are raised.

    ranching Noun

    practice of raising livestock for human use, such as food or clothing.

    Encyclopedic Entry: ranching
    region Noun

    any area on the Earth with one or more common characteristics. Regions are the basic units of geography.

    Encyclopedic Entry: region
    reliable Adjective

    dependable or consistent.

    roam Verb

    to wander or travel over a wide area without a specific destination.

    round-up Noun

    gathering of all the livestock on a ranch. Also called a muster.

    Sami Noun

    people and culture native to northern Scandinavia.

    savanna Noun

    type of tropical grassland with scattered trees.

    scrub Noun

    area of arid grassland covered with low-lying trees and bushes.

    seasonal Adjective

    likely to change with the seasons.

    sedentary Adjective

    staying in one place.

    semiarid climate Noun

    (dry climate) region that receives between 25 and 50 centimeters (10-20 inches) of rainfall every year.

    semi-nomadic Adjective

    people or communities who follow their food source for long periods of time, but can also live settled lives.

    settlement Noun

    community or village.

    shepherd Noun

    herder who tends to sheep.

    slaughter Verb

    to kill and butcher an animal for food.

    soil Noun

    top layer of the Earth's surface where plants can grow.

    sparse Adjective

    scattered and few in number.

    stalk Verb

    to pursue or approach prey or an enemy.

    subsistence agriculture Noun

    type of agriculture in which farmers grow crops or raise livestock for personal consumption, not sale.

    suburb Noun

    geographic area, mostly residential, just outside the borders of an urban area.

    supplement Verb

    to increase or add to.

    swineherd Noun

    hearder who tends to pigs and hogs.

    terrain Noun

    topographic features of an area.

    timber Noun

    wood in an unfinished form, either trees or logs.

    trade Noun

    buying, selling, or exchanging of goods and services.

    transhumance Noun

    seasonal migration of livestock and herders between warm valleys and cool foothills.

    transition zone Noun

    area between two natural or artificial regions.

    tribe Noun

    community made of one or several family groups sharing a common culture.

    tundra Noun

    cold, treeless region in Arctic and Antarctic climates.

    unique Adjective

    one of a kind.

    United Nations Noun

    international organization that works for peace, security and cooperation.

    urban Adjective

    having to do with city life.

    valley Noun

    depression in the Earth between hills.

    vaquero Noun

    Latin American cowboy.

    vast Adjective

    huge and spread out.

    wage Noun

    money or goods traded for work or service performed.

    Wakhan Corridor Noun

    area of northeastern Afghanistan that borders China.

    water rights Plural Noun

    right of a consumer (person, business, or government) to use water from a specific source. Sometimes, water rights include the amount of water a consumer is allowed to use.

    weather pattern Noun

    repeating or predictable changes in the Earth's atmosphere, such as winds, precipitation, and temperatures.

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