• diplomacy
    Although the president of the United States is officially the nation's "Chief Diplomat," the Secretary of State (Hillary Clinton, right) is the leader of the diplomatic corps.

    Photograph courtesy U.S. State Department

    Free From Harm
    Top diplomats have immunity, or protection, from search, arrest, and lawsuits in the country to which they are sent. They cannot be fined, arrested, or harmed in any way, even during war, and they are not searched when they cross borders. This diplomatic immunity allows them to do their work and negotiate freely. Embassies are also not subject to the host country's rules. In fact, they are considered part of the territory of the sending country.

    Recognition
    When a country declares independence, it needs to be recognized as independent by other countries. Countries may recognize new nations by receiving ambassadors and diplomatic missions. The first nations to recognize the new United States of America in 1779 were France, Morocco, and the Netherlands.

    Diplomacy is the art and science of maintaining peaceful relationships between nations, groups, or individuals. Often, diplomacy refers to representatives of different groups discussing such issues as conflict, trade, the environment, technology, or security.

    People who practice diplomacy are called diplomats. Diplomats try to help their own country, encourage cooperation between nations, and maintain peace. A group of diplomats representing one country that lives in another country is called a diplomatic mission. A permanent diplomatic mission is called an embassy. An ambassador is the lead diplomat at an embassy. A large diplomatic mission may have representation besides a single embassy. Other places of representation are called consulates.

    For example, the embassy of the United Kingdom is in the U.S. capital, Washington, D.C. The United Kingdom also has consulates in Atlanta, Georgia; Boston, Massachusetts; Chicago, Illinois; Denver, Colorado; Houston, Texas; Los Angeles, California; Miami, Florida; New York City, New York; Orlando, Florida; and San Francisco, California. The British ambassador to the United States is Sir Nigel Sheinwald. Sheinwald and the rest of the British diplomatic mission are responsible for representing British policies to the U.S. government, as well as assisting British people in the U.S. This often involves helping them with legal matters, such as visas or work permits.

    American diplomats work for a branch of the Department of State called the Foreign Service. More than 12,000 people work for the Foreign Service, helping Americans who travel abroad and pursuing American foreign policy.

    The U.S. has 265 diplomatic missions around the world. The largest U.S. diplomatic mission is in Mexico, which has an embassy in Mexico City and 22 consulates and consular agencies throughout the country.

    Ambassadors are appointed by the president of the United States. The U.S. has ambassadors in most countries, but not all. An ambassador or diplomatic mission does not represent the U.S. in Cuba, for instance. The U.S. had supported the government of Fulgencio Batista, until the dictator was overthrown by the Cuban Revolution in 1959.

    The U.S. withdrew diplomatic recognition from Cuba in 1961. Diplomatic recognition is the act of one nation or state accepting the independence and legitimacy of another nation or state. Today, the U.S. is represented by a branch of the Swiss embassy in Cuba—the United States Interests Section of the Embassy of Switzerland in Havana (USINT Havana). Similarly, Cuba is represented by another branch of the Swiss embassy in Washington.


    American diplomatic missions are staffed by foreign service officers and foreign service specialists. Foreign service officers are formal members of the Foreign Service. There are five major branches of work for foreign service officers: consular affairs (helping Americans living or visiting foreign countries); economic affairs; management affairs; political affairs; and public diplomacy. Public diplomacy is the practice of representing the U.S. in social and cultural activities, such as sports events, films, books, and radio broadcasts.

    Foreign service specialists provide important support services for diplomatic missions. This includes health care, construction and engineering, and English-language programs. Often, foreign service specialists must provide security for Americans in the event of a natural disaster or political unrest in a country.

    History of Diplomacy

    The art of diplomacy began in ancient times. Treaties between different cities in Mesopotamia, in what is now Iraq, date back to 2850 B.C. Leaders of Egypt and Canaan (an ancient country in the Middle East) exchanged diplomatic letters in the 14th century B.C. Writing on the walls of ancient Mayan buildings in what is now Mexico indicate that Mayan cities exchanged diplomats. Embassies were first established in northern Italy in the 14th century.

    For most of history, diplomacy was concerned with bilateral relations, or negotiations between two nations. A country or region often had dozens of trade or border agreements, each limited to a single other country or region. Bilateral relations are still a very common form of diplomacy.

    In the 20th century, diplomacy expanded. Today, the United Nations (UN), an international organization that works to promote cooperation and settle conflicts among nations, plays a large role in diplomacy. The General Assembly, the main body of the UN, has 195 members.

    Diplomacy also grew to include summit meetings. Summits are meetings between top government officials. Summits can be between national leaders, such as presidents or prime ministers. Economic summits often involve business leaders, as well as treasury secretaries or trade ministers.

    Camp David, in the U.S. state of Maryland, is the site of many summits between American presidents and foreign leaders. In 1978, President Jimmy Carter held an important summit with Egyptian President Anwar al-Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin. Egypt and Israel had been in conflict for more than 30 years. Often, as during the Six Day War of 1967, the conflict was violent.


    The summit between Carter, al-Sadat, and Begin resulted in the so-called “Camp David Accords.” This established the basis for the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty. Begin and al-Sadat shared the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979, and the treaty is still enforced today. The Camp David Accords are considered a triumph of diplomacy.

    Diplomacy also involves large international conferences. Like summits, international conferences are usually attended by heads-of-state or other national leaders. Conferences are usually much larger in scope—dozens of leaders may meet to discuss migration or border issues, trade, or the environment.

    The United Nations Conference on Environmental Development, for instance, was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992. More than a hundred heads-of-state attended the conference, in addition to thousands of professional diplomats and representatives of non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Diplomats at Rio’s so-called “Earth Summit” reached an agreement to limit carbon emissions.

    How Diplomacy Works

    Diplomacy is accomplished by negotiation, or bargaining. Usually, each group in a negotiation will ask for more than they expect to get. They then compromise, or give up some of what they want, in order to come to an agreement. Often, an outside diplomat will help with the negotiations. For example, Martti Ahtisaari, a Finnish diplomat working for the UN, helped Namibia gain independence from South Africa in 1990.

    Sometimes, one side in a negotiation refuses to compromise. When this happens, others involved in the negotiation may use diplomatic sanctions. Diplomatic sanctions involve the reduction or removal of all embassy staff from the offending country. Lighter diplomatic sanctions may involve the refusal of a president to visit the offending country or meet with its leaders. Nicaragua cut off all diplomatic relations with Israel, for instance, in 2010. Nicaragua was protesting Israel’s attack on a shipment of aid to the Gaza Strip, part of the Palestinian Authority, with whom Israel has conflict.

    Countries may also threaten to use economic sanctions, or penalties. In 2006, many countries agreed not to trade with North Korea in an effort to stop the country from illegally testing nuclear weapons.

    Other times, diplomats threaten to use force if a settlement is not reached. In 1990, Iraq invaded the neighboring country of Kuwait. When Iraq refused to leave Kuwait, the United Nations approved a military response. A coalition, or group of nations working together, fought the Iraqi army, forcing them out of Kuwait.

    Successful negotiation results in a diplomatic agreement. The most formal kind of an agreement is a treaty, a written contract between countries. The Treaty of Versailles, for instance, formally ended World War I. It was signed in Versailles, France. Diplomats from the Central Powers, including Germany and Austria, were not allowed to negotiate the treaty. However, diplomats from other Central Powers nations and the Allied Powers, including the United States, approved the treaty.

    Some treaties require years of diplomatic negotiation. The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) between the United States and the Soviet Union began in 1969. The talks continued through 1979. The treaties that resulted from these diplomatic negotiations (named SALT I and SALT II) reduced the number of nuclear weapons being produced.

    Another type of agreement is a convention, which is signed by multiple nations and becomes international law. The most famous are the Geneva Conventions, which outline the treatment of prisoners of war, civilians, and medical personnel in a war zone. The first convention was signed in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1864. The fourth, and perhaps most important, was signed in 1949 after World War II.

    Protocols, the least formal diplomatic procedure, change or expand an existing agreement. The Kyoto Protocol is an update to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The UNFCCC was produced at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The Kyoto Protocol, signed in Kyoto, Japan, was produced in 1997. The Kyoto Protocol aims to stabilize the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere.

  • Term Part of Speech Definition Encyclopedic Entry
    abroad Adverb

    in a foreign country.

    Allied Powers Noun

    alliance of countries that participated in World War I, led by the United Kingdom, France, and Russia. Also called the Triple Entente.

    ambassador Noun

    person who represents a place, organization, or idea.

    ancient Adjective

    very old.

    Anwar al-Sadat Noun

    (1918-1981) Egyptian president (1970-1981).

    appoint Verb

    to assign to a position.

    assist Noun

    to help or support.

    atmosphere Noun

    layers of gases surrounding a planet or other celestial body.

    Encyclopedic Entry: atmosphere
    bilateral Adjective

    having to do with two nations, representatives, or other organizations.

    border Noun

    natural or artificial line separating two pieces of land.

    Encyclopedic Entry: border
    Camp David Accords Noun

    (1978) agreements that led to the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty.

    capital Noun

    city where a region's government is located.

    Encyclopedic Entry: capital
    carbon emission Noun

    carbon compound released into the air through the burning of fossil fuels such as coal or gas.

    Central Powers Noun

    alliance of countries that participated in World War I: the German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Kingdom of Bulgaria. Also called the Triple Alliance.

    civilian Noun

    person who is not in the military.

    coalition Noun

    a group of people or organizations united for a goal.

    conflict Noun

    a disagreement or fight, usually over ideas or procedures.

    consulate Noun

    place that represents the interests of a nation or state in another nation, but lacking the presence of an ambassador.

    convention Noun

    formal meeting, usually with representatives from different regions or parties.

    Cuban revolution Noun

    (1959) revolt that led to the overthrow of the dictator Fulgencio Batista in Cuba.

    Department of State Noun

    department of U.S. government responsible for international relations, whose mission is to "Create a more secure, democratic, and prosperous world for the benefit of the American people and the international community."

    diplomacy Noun

    art and science of maintaining peaceful relationships between nations, groups, or individuals.

    Encyclopedic Entry: diplomacy
    diplomat Noun

    person who negotiates important political and economic agreements, usually for a government.

    diplomatic agreement Noun

    result of a meeting between two or more nations or other organizations.

    diplomatic mission Noun

    group of diplomats representing one country that lives in another country.

    diplomatic recognition Noun

    act of one nation or state accepting the independence and legitimacy of another nation or state.

    diplomatic sanction Noun

    penalty or punishment, such as withdrawal of embassy personnel, imposed by one nation or group of nations on another nation.

    Earth Summit Noun

    (1992) informal name for the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Also called the Rio Summit.

    economic Adjective

    having to do with money.

    economic sanction Noun

    penalty or punishment, such as increased taxes on imports, imposed by one nation or group of nations on another nation.

    embassy Noun

    residence of an ambassador or place where representatives of a nation conduct business in another country.

    engineering Noun

    the art and science of building, maintaining, moving, and demolishing structures.

    environment Noun

    conditions that surround and influence an organism or community.

    foreign policy Noun

    courses of action or thought that guide a nation's relationship with other nations.

    Foreign Service Noun

    branch of the U.S. State Department concerned with representing and carrying out the foreign policy of the U.S. and helping U.S. citizens abroad.

    foreign service officer Noun

    diplomat who serves with the U.S. Foreign Service, formulating and representing U.S. foreign policy, often in embassies and consulates.

    foreign service specialist Noun

    employee of the U.S. State Department who provides administrative, technical, and security support for the Foreign Service system, both within the U.S. and abroad.

    Fulgencio Batista Noun

    (1902-1973) Cuban leader (1934-1944, 1952-1959).

    Gaza Strip Noun

    self-governing Palestinian territory in Israel located on Israel's southwestern coast and bordering Egypt.

    General Assembly Noun

    main unit of the United Nations, made up of representatives from all member states.

    Geneva Convention Noun

    series of international agreements establishing rules for the treatment of prisoners of war, medical and religious personnel serving in a conflict, and a conflict's dead and wounded soldiers and civilians.

    government Noun

    system or order of a nation, state, or other political unit.

    greenhouse gas Noun

    gas in the atmosphere, such as carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and ozone, that absorbs solar heat reflected by the surface of the Earth, warming the atmosphere.

    independence Noun

    state or situation of being free.

    indicate Verb

    to display or show.

    international conference Noun

    large meetings that usually involve the leaders of several nations.

    international organization Noun

    unit made up of governments or groups in different countries, usually for a specific purpose.

    Encyclopedic Entry: international organization
    Jimmy Carter Noun

    (1924-present) 39th president of the United States.

    Kyoto Protocol Noun

    (1997) international agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

    legal Adjective

    allowed by law.

    maintain Verb

    to continue, keep up, or support.

    Maya Noun

    people and culture native to southeastern Mexico and Central America.

    Menachem Begin Noun

    (1913-1992) prime minister of Israel (1977-1983).

    Mesopotamia Noun

    area between the Tigris and Euphrates River in Iraq.

    migration Noun

    movement of a group of people or animals from one place to another.

    nation Noun

    political unit made of people who share a common territory.

    Encyclopedic Entry: nation
    natural disaster Noun

    an event occurring naturally that has large-scale effects on the environment and people, such as a volcano, earthquake, or hurricane.

    negotiate Verb

    to discuss with others of different viewpoints in order to reach an agreement, contract, or treaty.

    NGO Noun

    non-governmental organization.

    Nobel Peace Prize Noun

    award recognizing the contributions of a person or organization to "work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace."

    nuclear weapon Noun

    explosive device that draws power from the splitting and combining of atomic nuclei.

    Palestinian Authority Noun

    (Palestinian National Authority) organization responsible for governing the semi-independent areas of the Gaza Strip and the West Bank in Israel.

    personnel Noun

    employees or all people working toward a common goal.

    prime minister Noun

    leader of government in parliamentary systems of government.

    prisoner of war Noun

    person captured and held by an enemy during a conflict.

    protocol Noun

    series of rules.

    public diplomacy Noun

    practice of representing the interests of a nation or other organization in social and cultural activities.

    region Noun

    any area on the Earth with one or more common characteristics. Regions are the basic units of geography.

    Encyclopedic Entry: region
    representative Noun

    someone or something who acts in place of a group of people.

    security Noun

    safety or stability.

    Six Day War Noun

    (1967) conflict between Israel and Egypt, Jordan, and Syria.

    Soviet Union Noun

    (1922-1991) large northern Eurasian nation that had a communist government. Also called the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, or the USSR.

    stabilize Verb

    to anchor or make strong and reliable.

    Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) Noun

    (1969-1986) series of summits and agreements between the United States and the Soviet Union to limit the production of nuclear weapons.

    summit Noun

    meeting or conference of top leaders.

    technology Noun

    the science of using tools and complex machines to make human life easier or more profitable.

    trade Noun

    buying, selling, or exchanging of goods and services.

    treaty Noun

    official agreement between groups of people.

    Treaty of Versailles Noun

    (1919) agreement between the Allied Powers and the Central Powers that formally ended World War I.

    United Kingdom Noun

    nation made of the countries of England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland.

    United Nations Noun

    international organization that works for peace, security and cooperation.

    unrest Noun

    troubled, conflicted, or disturbed situation or state of mind.

    USINT Havana Noun

    organization that represents the interests of the United States in Cuba, as the U.S. does not have diplomatic relations there.

    visa Noun

    document allowing a person to enter a foreign country.

    work permit Noun

    legal document allowing someone to seek employment, usually in a foreign country.

    World War I Noun

    (1914-1918) armed conflict between the Allies (led by the United States, the United Kingdom, and France) and the Central Powers (led by Germany and Austria-Hungary). Also called the Great War.

    World War II Noun

    (1939-1945) armed conflict between the Allies (represented by the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union) and the Axis (represented by Germany, Italy, and Japan.)

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