• border
    All of the fences and walls along the U.S.-Mexico border have been constructed by the U.S. (not the Mexican) government.

    Photograph by Paula Cabrera, MyShot

    Friendly Neighbors
    Canada and the United States share the world's longest undefended border, stretching 6,416 kilometers (3,987 miles).

    Meandering River
    The border between Mexico and the U.S. state of Texas follows the Rio Grande. During the mid-1800s, the river shifted its course southward, giving the U.S. an extra 600 acres of land. For many years, the two countries fought over this territory. The dispute wasn't officially settled until 1963.

    Kurds Way
    The Kurds are the largest ethnic group in the world without their own state. There are approximately 35 million Kurds living throughout Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Armenia. They often face hostility and violence in the countries where they live. For example, Iraqi soldiers destroyed more than 4,000 Kurdish villages and killed as many as 182,000 Kurds in the 1980s. The Kurds have longed for their own stateKurdistanfor centuries, but so far have been unable to accomplish this goal. Nations are rarely willing to relinquish their borders.

    A border is a real or artificial line that separates geographic areas. Borders are political boundaries. They separate countries, states, provinces, counties, cities, and towns. A border outlines the area that a particular governing body controls. The government of a region can only create and enforce laws within its borders.

    Borders change over time. Sometimes the people in one region take over another area through violence. Other times, land is traded or sold peacefully. Many times, land is parceled out after a war through international agreements.

    Sometimes, borders fall along natural boundaries like rivers or mountain ranges. For example, the boundary between France and Spain follows the crest of the Pyrenees mountains. For part of its length, the boundary between the United States and Mexico follows a river called the Rio Grande. The borders of four countries divide Africa’s Lake Chad: Niger, Chad, Cameroon, and Nigeria.

    Borders—particularly national borders—affect travel and migration. People can usually move freely within their own country’s borders, but may not be allowed to cross into a neighboring country.

    When neighboring countries have similar wealth and political systems, their borders may be open and undefended. For example, citizens of the 27-country European Union may travel freely among any of the member states. Only five EU members—Bulgaria, Cyprus, Ireland, Romania, and the United Kingdom—require travelers from other EU states to present a passport or ID card at the border.

    On the opposite extreme, the Korean Demilitarized Zone—the border between communist North Korea and democratic South Korea—is the most heavily militarized border in the world. The zone, which is 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) wide and 243 kilometers (151 miles) long, separates the two countries with barbed-wire fences, land mines, and armed guards. Citizens of most countries must have a passport and official permission to enter the borders of North Korea. North Koreans must also have official permission before they leave the secretive nation.

    Every country has its own rules about who may travel, work, and reside within its borders. Visas and work permits are government documents issued to non-citizens that limit the type of work or travel they may do in the country, and for how long. The United States issues “green cards”—officially known as permanent resident cards—that allow non-Americans to live and work inside the borders of the U.S. and be protected by its laws.

    Border Protection

    Most countries have some sort of military or law-enforcement presence along their borders. Countries protect their borders for several reasons. One is to keep out invaders. This is especially true in areas where two or more countries have fought over the same land for many years. Cambodia and Thailand, for example, have disputed the territory of the Preah Vihear Temple for more than a century. Cambodian and Thai military units are positioned along the border near Preah Vihear Temple, and skirmishes often result in deaths on both sides.


    Sometimes, borders serve to keep citizens in. Most governments with these “closed borders” are not democratic. In addition to North Korea, nations such as Myanmar and Cuba rarely allow their residents to cross their borders.

    Borders can also serve to protect resources. Sometimes, the borders of U.S. congressional districts protect ethnic, religious, or economic communities. Citizens within these borders often vote as a unit, based on shared political beliefs. The area’s representative in the U.S. House of Representatives must be aware of the interests within his or her district’s borders. The concerns of a representative from the urban area of St. Louis, Missouri, for instance, are less likely to be issues affecting farmers than a representative from rural Missouri, which is dominated by agriculture. The representative from rural Missouri would be less likely to be concerned with issues surrounding public transportation, which is much more common in cities.

    Border Disputes

    Many border disputes occur when people fight over natural resources. For instance, Sudan and Egypt have quarreled for decades over a region called Hala’ib. This triangle of land along the Red Sea is rich in the mineral manganese, which is essential to iron and steel production. It is also used as an additive in unleaded gasoline. The Sudanese government claims the land rightfully belongs to Sudan, but it currently belongs to Egypt.

    Many times, political borders divide groups of people who share a common religion, culture, ancestry, or language. The border between North Korea and South Korea, for example, is a purely political one; the Korean people share a united history, culture, and language. The nation of Germany was divided between East Germany and West Germany from 1949-1989. Like the Korean border, this was a purely political division, between the democratic West and the communist East. Germany reunified in 1990, and the border disappeared.

    Many times, one ethnic group wishes to break off and form its own, independent state. This can lead to civil war.

    The area of southeastern Europe on the Balkan Peninsula (known as the Balkans) has a long history of ethnic conflict and disputed borders. The country of Yugoslavia was created from many small political units after World War I. After World War II, Yugoslavia became a communist country under Marshal Josip Broz Tito. Despite Yugoslavia’s many different languages, cultures, and religions, Tito and his successors were able to maintain a stable nation until the fall of communism in the early 1990s.

    After the fall of communism, however, democratic movements swept central and eastern Europe. Autocratic rulers were unable to maintain power. In the Balkans, ancient feuds began to resurface. Bosnians, Serbs, Croats, Macedonians, and Slovenians began vying for control of the region. Even within these national groups, ethnic or religious minorities pursued independence: Bosnian Serbs sought independence from Bosnia, while citizens of the Kosovo region sought independence based on their Muslim identity. The area that used to be Yugoslavia now consists of seven countries: Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Macedonia, Montenegro, and Kosovo. The crimes surrounding the border disputes between these countries are so numerous and graphic that an entire court in the International Criminal Court is devoted to them: the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY).


    Border issues often arise when outside powers draw borders in regions they colonize, with or without the consent of the people who already live there. During the 1800s and 1900s, European countries colonized much of Africa. These European colonists created the borders of most African countries. The divisions often did not reflect the existing ethnic or political groups that lived in those regions. The so-called “Scramble for Africa” was a conflict between European powers on African soil. European nations, led by the United Kingdom, France, and Belgium, competed to amass the most land and resources in Africa, with little regard for natural boundaries or cultural borders.

    By the late 1960s, most African nations had gained independence. As colonial powers withdrew from the continent, they often left a power vacuum that allowed old tribal conflicts to resurface. For example, after Belgian troops withdrew from Central Africa, two tribes—the Hutus and Tutsis—began fighting. In 1962, two new countries were formed. Rwanda was led by Hutus, while Burundi was led by Tutsis. Fighting continued until it came to a head in 1994 with a devastating civil war in Rwanda that left hundreds of thousands of Tutsis and moderate Hutus dead. The Tutsis took control, forcing millions of Hutus to flee into nearby Democratic Republic of Congo (then called Zaire) and Tanzania.

    African leaders are working to establish stable, peaceful borders. In January 2011, the citizens of southern Sudan voted to secede from Sudan and form their own nation. The president of Sudan accepted the vote. The border between Sudan and the proposed nation of Southern Sudan has not been disputed. The regions are ethnically and religiously distinct, with Arab Muslims dominating the culture of Sudan and Christian Africans dominating the culture of Southern Sudan.

    Border disputes can also develop as communities seek to establish their own city. This process is called incorporation. Many rural or suburban residents resist incorporation. They prefer to be an unincorporated part of a county, instead of affiliated with a town or city. They say it will lead to more taxes and government rules.

    Other residents support incorporation and setting their own borders. They say incorporating as a town or city will allow them more independence on issues of law enforcement, education, and land use.

  • Term Part of Speech Definition Encyclopedic Entry
    affiliate Verb

    to associate or connect to something else.

    agriculture Noun

    the art and science of cultivating the land for growing crops (farming) or raising livestock (ranching).

    Encyclopedic Entry: agriculture
    amass Verb

    to gather.

    ancestry Noun

    family (genealogical) or historical background.

    ancient Adjective

    very old.

    autocratic Adjective

    having to do with a government or leadership where one party or individual has all power.

    Balkan Adjective

    having to do with the Balkan Peninsula in southeastern Europe.

    barbed wire Noun

    twisted metal with sharpened points, often used for fences.

    border Noun

    natural or artificial line separating two pieces of land.

    Encyclopedic Entry: border
    boundary Noun

    line separating geographical areas.

    Encyclopedic Entry: boundary
    century Noun

    100 years.

    citizen Noun

    member of a country, state, or town who shares responsibilities for the area and benefits from being a member.

    city Noun

    large settlement with a high population density.

    civil war Noun

    conflict between groups in the same country or nation.

    closed border Noun

    dividing line where passage between two areas is strictly controlled.

    colonize Verb

    to establish control of a foreign land and culture.

    congressional district Verb

    geographic area represented by a member of the U.S. House of Representatives.

    consist Verb

    to be made of.

    continent Noun

    one of the seven main land masses on Earth.

    Encyclopedic Entry: continent
    country Noun

    geographic territory with a distinct name, flag, population, boundaries, and government.

    county Noun

    political unit smaller than a state or province, but typically larger than a city, town, or other municipality.

    Encyclopedic Entry: county
    culture Noun

    learned behavior of people, including their languages, belief systems, social structures, institutions, and material goods.

    decade Noun

    10 years.

    demilitarized zone (DMZ) Noun

    area not controlled by any government, and where it is illegal to station troops.

    democratic Adjective

    having to do with a government led by its citizens, who vote for policies and/or representatives.

    devastate Verb

    to destroy.

    dispute Noun

    debate or argument.

    distinct Adjective

    unique or identifiable.

    dominate Verb

    to overpower or control.

    economic Adjective

    having to do with money.

    essential Adjective

    needed.

    establish Verb

    to form or officially organize.

    ethnic Adjective

    having to do with characteristics of a group of people linked by shared culture, language, national origin, or other marker.

    European Union Noun

    association of European nations promoting free trade, ease of transportation, and cultural and political links.

    farmer Noun

    person who cultivates land and raises crops.

    feud Verb

    to argue or engage in hostilities, especially over long periods of time.

    flee Verb

    to run away.

    government Noun

    system or order of a nation, state, or other political unit.

    Hala'ib Noun

    disputed area bordering Egypt, Sudan, and the Red Sea.

    House of Representatives Noun

    federal branch of Congress in the United States, with state representatives elected every two years.

    Hutu Noun

    people and culture native to central Africa, especially the nations of Rwanda and Burundi.

    incorporation Noun

    process of a region uniting to form a town or city.

    independence Noun

    state or situation of being free.

    International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia Noun

    United Nations body dedicated to prosecuting crimes committed during wars on the Balkan Peninsula following the break-up of the nation of Yugoslavia in 1991.

    invader Noun

    organism that enters an area to take control of it.

    iron Noun

    chemical element with the symbol Fe.

    Josip Broz Tito Noun

    (1892-1980) Yugoslav leader.

    land mine Noun

    small explosive device hidden just under the surface of the Earth.

    land use Noun

    range of purposes people put to the earth.

    language Noun

    set of sounds, gestures, or symbols that allows people to communicate.

    law enforcement Noun

    individuals or organizations that make sure people obey government rules.

    manganese Noun

    metallic chemical element with the symbol Mn.

    migration Noun

    movement of a group of people or animals from one place to another.

    military Noun

    armed forces.

    mineral Noun

    inorganic material that has a characteristic chemical composition and specific crystal structure.

    mountain range Noun

    series or chain of mountains that are close together.

    Muslim Adjective

    having to do with Islam, the religion based on the words and philosophy of the prophet Mohammed.

    nation Noun

    political unit made of people who share a common territory.

    Encyclopedic Entry: nation
    parcel Verb

    to divide and give out in measured portions.

    passport Noun

    document issued by a national government to its citizens, verifying their identity and outlining their ability to legally travel to and from their home country.

    political boundary Noun

    imaginary line separating one political unit, such as a country or state, from another.

    political system Noun

    method of leadership and government.

    province Noun

    division of a country larger than a town or county.

    Encyclopedic Entry: province
    public transportation Noun

    methods of movement that are available to all community members for a fee, and which follow a fixed route and schedule: buses, subways, trains and ferries.

    pursue Verb

    to follow in order to capture.

    quarrel Verb

    to dispute or argue.

    region Noun

    any area on the Earth with one or more common characteristics. Regions are the basic units of geography.

    Encyclopedic Entry: region
    religion Noun

    a system of spiritual or supernatural belief.

    reside Verb

    to live in a place.

    resource Noun

    available supply of materials, goods, or services. Resources can be natural or human.

    Rio Grande Noun

    (2,900 kilometers/1,800 miles) river that runs from the U.S. state of Colorado to the Gulf of Mexico, forming part of the border between the U.S. and Mexico. Called the Rio Bravo in Mexico.

    river Noun

    large stream of flowing fresh water.

    Encyclopedic Entry: river
    rural Adjective

    having to do with country life, or areas with few residents.

    Scramble for Africa Noun

    (1885-1910) period during which European nations colonized almost all of the African continent. Also called the Race for Africa.

    secede Verb

    to withdraw from part of a union or alliance.

    skirmish Noun

    fight or dispute involving few people.

    stable Adjective

    steady and reliable.

    state Noun

    nation or national government.

    steel Noun

    metal made of the elements iron and carbon.

    suburb Noun

    geographic area, mostly residential, just outside the borders of an urban area.

    tax Noun

    money or goods citizens provide to government in return for public services such as military protection.

    territory Noun

    land an animal, human, or government protects from intruders.

    town Noun

    human settlement larger than a village and smaller than a city.

    trade Noun

    buying, selling, or exchanging of goods and services.

    travel Noun

    movement from one place to another.

    troop Noun

    a soldier.

    Tutsi Noun

    people and culture native to central Africa, especially the nations of Rwanda and Burundi.

    unleaded gasoline Noun

    most popular gas for cars, treated to remove toxic chemicals so it emits less-harmful exhaust.

    urban area Noun

    developed, densely populated area where most inhabitants have nonagricultural jobs.

    Encyclopedic Entry: urban area
    vacuum Noun

    area of empty space.

    vie Verb

    to compete.

    violence Noun

    acts that cause physical harm to another person.

    visa Noun

    document allowing a person to enter a foreign country.

    war Noun

    large-scale armed conflict.

    wealth Noun

    amount of money or other valuable materials.

    work permit Noun

    legal document allowing someone to seek employment, usually in a foreign country.

    World War I Noun

    (1914-1918) armed conflict between the Allies (led by the United States, the United Kingdom, and France) and the Central Powers (led by Germany and Austria-Hungary). Also called the Great War.

    World War II Noun

    (1939-1945) armed conflict between the Allies (represented by the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union) and the Axis (represented by Germany, Italy, and Japan.)

    Yugoslavia Noun

    (1918-1991) nation made up of the kingdoms of Serbia and Montenegro, and part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire after World War I; expanded to include the republics of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, and Slovenia after World War II.

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