Directions

1. Have students investigate twelve marine ecosystems.
Have students watch the Census of Marine Life background video, "A Journey Through Habitats" (2 minutes, 21 seconds). The video is found under the "Background" tab on the Census of Marine Life link provided. As they watch, ask students to note the wide diversity of ocean ecosystems. Divide students into small groups and assign each group one ecosystem from the list:

Give each group a copy of the Marine Ecosystems handout and the Marine Ecosystems Notetaking worksheet. Have students use the handout and provided websites to research and record the following information about their ecosystems: location of one or more real-world examples of their ecosystems, the different marine organisms found there, and the unique characteristics that set the ecosystem apart from other marine ecosystems. Each group should then transcribe its research from the Marine Ecosystem Notetaking worksheet to a large piece of butcher paper so the information can be shared with the class.

2. Have students map real-world ecosystems.
Ask one student from each group to present their ecosystem research to the class. After presenting, have each group use the Water Planet Mega Map, included in the World Physical MapMaker Kit, to locate and label at least one location where its ecosystem can be found. Once all of the ecosystems are labeled on the Mega Map, ask students to discuss their findings. Ask: Are there any links between these ecosystems? Prompt students to think of links such as hydrologic cycle, currents, organisms, or other connections. Then ask: Do the ecosystems share any physical features or significant abiotic factors? Prompt students to consider geology, depth, salinity, and water temperature.

3. Have students look at illustrations of real-world ecosystems.

List the 12 ecosystems on the board as a word bank. Display the gallery of ecosystem illustrations and have students analyze them. While scrolling through the illustrations, pause after each one and have students write which ecosystem they think it is and where in the world it might be located (Answers: abyssal plain [deep sea coral, whale fall, brine pool], Antarctic, Arctic, coral reef, deep sea [abyssal water column], hydrothermal vent, kelp forest, mangrove, open ocean, rocky shore, salt marsh and mudflat, sandy shore). Conclude the activity by emphasizing how many different and unique ecosystems are found throughout the ocean.

Informal Assessment

Have students return to the illustrations and ask them to explain their reasoning for identifying each illustration as a particular ecosystem. Their reasoning should include the unique characteristics of the ecosystems and how the ecosystems' physical features relate to their locations throughout the world.

Extending the Learning

Have students use Google Earth: Oceans to find as many of their marine ecosystem locations as possible. Then have them find these additional features:

  • The Dead Sea—the lowest point on land in the world at 422 meters (1,385 feet) below sea level
  • The Arabian Peninsula (Arabia)—the largest peninsula in the world; it is surrounded by the Red Sea, the Arabian Sea, the Gulf of Oman, and the Persian Gulf.
  • Mariana Trench—the lowest point in the sea at about 11,000 meters (36,000 feet) deep

Objectives

Subjects & Disciplines

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • differentiate between different types of marine ecosystems
  • locate real-world examples of different marine ecosystems on a world map
  • analyze clues to identify a particular marine ecosystem

Teaching Approach

  • Learning-for-use

Teaching Methods

  • Cooperative learning
  • Information organization
  • Research
  • Simulations and games

National Standards, Principles, and Practices

National Geography Standards

Standard 1
How to use maps and other geographic representations, geospatial technologies, and spatial thinking to understand and communicate information
Standard 8
The characteristics and spatial distribution of ecosystems and biomes on Earth's surface

National Science Education Standards

(9-12) Standard A-1
Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry
(9-12) Standard C-5
Matter, energy, and organization in living systems

Ocean Literacy Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts

Principle 5e
The ocean is three-dimensional, offering vast living space and diverse habitats from the surface through the water column to the seafloor. Most of the living space on Earth is in the ocean.
Principle 5f
Ocean habitats are defined by environmental factors. Due to interactions of abiotic factors such as salinity, temperature, oxygen, pH, light, nutrients, pressure, substrate and circulation, ocean life is not evenly distributed temporally or spatially, i.e., it is “patchy”. Some regions of the ocean support more diverse and abundant life than anywhere on Earth, while much of the ocean is considered a desert.

Preparation

What You’ll Need

Materials You Provide

  • Butcher paper
  • Markers
  • Pencils

Background & Vocabulary

Background Information

The ocean supports a great diversity of marine ecosystems, including abyssal plain (deep sea coral, whale fall, brine pool), Antarctic, Arctic, coral reef, deep sea (abyssal water column), hydrothermal vent, kelp forest, mangrove, open ocean, rocky shore, salt marsh, mudflat, and sandy shore. Each ecosystem is comprised of unique physical characteristics and organisms specifically adapted to them. These features distinguish marine ecosystems from one another and determine their distribution throughout the oceans of the world.


Prior Knowledge

  • None

Vocabulary

Term Part of Speech Definition Encyclopedic Entry

abyssal plain

Noun

extensive, featureless region of the deep ocean floor.

Antarctic

Noun

region at Earth's extreme south, encompassed by the Antarctic Circle.

Arctic

Noun

region at Earth's extreme north, encompassed by the Arctic Circle.

Encyclopedic Entry: Arctic

coral reef

Noun

rocky ocean features made up of millions of coral skeletons.

kelp forest

Noun

underwater habitat filled with tall seaweeds known as kelp.

mangrove swamp

Noun

coastal wetland dominated by mangrove trees, which have roots that can survive in salty water.

marine ecosystem

Noun

community of living and nonliving things in the ocean.

mudflat

Noun

coastal wetland formed as rivers or tides deposit sediment.

open ocean

Noun

area of the ocean that does not border land.

salinity

Noun

saltiness.

salt marsh

Noun

coastal wetland that is flooded with seawater, often by tides.

Credits

Media Credits

The audio, illustrations, photos, and videos are credited beneath the media asset, except for promotional images, which generally link to another page that contains the media credit. The Rights Holder for media is the person or group credited.

Writer

Nancee Hunter
Angela M. Cowan, Education Specialist and Curriculum Designer

Editor

Christina Riska, National Geographic Society
Julie Brown, National Geographic Society
Elizabeth Wolzak, National Geographic Society

Educator Reviewer

Mark H. Bockenhauer, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Geography, St. Norbert College
Elizabeth Wolzak, National Geographic Society

Expert Reviewer

Sarah Wilson, National Geographic Society
Julie Brown, National Geographic Society

National Geographic Program

2010 National Teacher Leadership Institute: Oceans

Other

Special thanks to the educators who participated in National Geographic's 2010-2011 National Teacher Leadership Academy (NTLA), for testing activities in their classrooms and informing the content for all of the Ocean: Marine Ecology, Human Impacts, and Conservation resources.

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